And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, The fifteenth day of this seventh month shall be the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto the Lord.
On the first day shall be an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein.
Seven days ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord: on the eighth day shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord: it is a solemn assembly; and ye shall do no servile work therein.
These are the feasts of the Lord, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord, a burnt offering, and a meat offering, a sacrifice, and drink offerings, every thing upon his day:
Beside the sabbaths of the Lord, and beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill offerings, which ye give unto the Lord.
Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto the Lord seven days: on the first day shall be a sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a sabbath.
And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and ye shall rejoice before the Lord your God seven days.
And ye shall keep it a feast unto the Lord seven days in the year. It shall be a statute for ever in your generations: ye shall celebrate it in the seventh month.
Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths: That your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the Lord your God.
And Moses declared unto the children of Israel the feasts of the Lord. (Leviticus 23:33–44)
Observations and Prophetic Implications
The Feast of Succot, or Tabernacles, occurs on the fifteenth day of Tishri, falling at the end of the harvest season. It is also sometimes known as the Feast of Booths, Festival of Shelters, or even the Festival or Feast of Indwelling, bbecause during this feast the people stayed in temporary shelters or “booths,” made of “citron, myrtle, palm, and willow.”[i] This was a celebration of the year’s final harvest, a time for laborers to enter a season of rest. Recall that it was earlier mentioned that this feast was the final of the religious season; it was the seventh feast, and seven is God’s number of completion. For this observation, God’s people were called to take a Sabbath day. Then, each day for seven days, they were to make offerings by fire to the Lord, followed by an eighth day, which was another day of rest. (Placing these two Sabbaths on Tishri 15 and 22).
In addition to celebrating the end of a particular year’s harvest—thus recognizing God supplying their physical needs— this was a time of memorializing His ongoing, reliable providence. This is why people were ordered to dwell in booths for seven days: a remembrance of when God had given them temporary dwellings to occupy when He had delivered them out of the land of Egypt. He had given them manna to eat (Exodus 16:4), a pillar of cloud during the day and one of fire to light their way at night (Exodus 13:21), and laws to follow (Exodus 20). He had even eventually led them to the Promised Land—despite their disobedience (Joshua 1:4). By building and living in these temporary shelters for this feast, God’s people show that they still lean on Him for all of their needs, both physical and spiritual. Likewise, they show their recognition that we still live a nomadic and temporary existence, not one wherein we reside in our permanent home. This reinforces our awareness that the delay in our reaching our permanent home is brought about by our own disobedience, lack of faith, or even idolatry—just as was the case for the Israelites in that day (Deuteronomy 1:35). However, present-day observation of the Feast of Booths reaffirms that we only live an existence of temporariness and wandering until we fully learn to trust in Him and that even while times such as this occur in our lives, God will provide our needs and bring us to a permanent dwelling if we put our faith in Him. This what Deuteronomy 1:33 states: He “ [goes] before you, to search you out a place to pitch your tents in, in fire by night, to …[show] you by what way ye should go, and in a cloud by day.”
Most importantly, the brevity of the booth-dwelling during this feast reminds God’s people that this world is not our home; He has a permanent home for us in a future place. We are to occupy this space while watching for another home in heaven:
By faith Abraham obeyed when he was called to go out to the place which he would receive as an inheritance; and he went out, not knowing where he was to go.
By faith he dwelt in the land of promise as in a foreign country, dwelling in tents with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise.
For he waited for the city which has foundations, whose builder and maker is God. (Hebrews 11:8–10)
While God’s people live as nomads and outcasts here on earth, we have assurance that our situation is as temporary as the booths in which the Israelites dwelt during their journey to the Promised Land. Jesus Himself has guaranteed us a home where we really belong—our forever home:
In my Father’s house are many [rooms-tents]: if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you.
And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also. (John 14:2–3)
When Jesus spoke those words, His Hebrew followers would have immediately caught the connection between the Feast of Tabernacles and His Second Coming (or the Rapture), for the annual feast was one of the occasions requiring the Israelites to make a pilgrimage to the wilderness tabernacle and, later, the temple in Jerusalem to appear before God. This is the event that will be transpiring on earth exactly three and a half years before Apophis-Wormwood crashes into this planet. Is this mere coincidence, or does it possibly—as some believe—point to a pre-Tribulation Rapture?
Additionally, considering that Jesus was the Tabernacle of the Lord God who came to earth in the flesh, and since He left with us the Holy Spirit who lives in our bodies (John 14:16, 1 Corinthians 6:19); each of us is also a partial fulfillment of this feast. After all, we are now the temples (tabernacles) of the Spirit. The spiritual symbolism is inspiring and reassuring. However, Jesus interacted with this feast in a very bold, outspoken, and literal way during His earthly life.
Pouring the Water
When Jesus walked the earth, on the last day of the Feast of Tabernacles, also called Hoshanah Rabbah ( “The Day of the Great Hosanna”), the ritual of water-pouring took place.[ii] This was a petition for God to send the Messiah to save/deliver them. The water-pouring was also an act of faith, as the rainy season had not yet arrived. Thus, this offering expressed faith that God would send adequate rain in the coming months. On a deeper level, it was a supplication for the forthcoming Messiah and the life-saving deliverance He would bring with Him. The ritual consisted of one priest using a golden receptacle to retrieve water from the Pool of Siloam, which he then delivered to the high priest in the temple. The contents would then be emptied into a basin that sat below the altar to signify the Messiah’s coming.
Meanwhile, nearby priests blew shofars as onlookers waved palm leaves and sang the praises of the Most High God. These traditions draw from Isaiah12:3 and 44:3: “Therefore with joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation”; “For I will pour water upon him that is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground: I will pour my spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thine offspring.”
While the feast itself holds a future-facing thrust, it has already been mentioned that Jesus addressed it (and this tradition in particular) in His own lifetime on earth. It was on Hoshanah Rabbah that “Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink. He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water” (John 7:37–38). In other words, while those in the temple poured water in petition to God to provide the blessing of rain in the upcoming seasons and to send the Delivering Messiah, Jesus stood in the midst of them and explained that the answer to their prayers had already arrived. Likewise, this was His way of saying that while the waters of this earth (even those drawn from the Pool of Siloam) were temporary and fleeting, His was the true Water of Life that would forever satisfy.
Unfortunately, we see in the following verse that only some truly heard Jesus’ message: “But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified” (John 7:39). Of those who understood, many began comparing prophetic lineages and birth origins to what they knew of Him in attempt to discern His true identity. Jesus, later (that is to say, later the same day on a Hebrew calendar, but what, by modern Gregorian day-counts, would be considered the afternoon of the following day), also took ownership of another unique aspect of this feast’s elements.
The Lighting of the Temple
Another element associated with this feast was the temple lighting. Because people would make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem from miles around and then reside in temporary booths that had been built on-site for the week of this feast, the entire area would be lit with tens of thousands of burning torches, which illuminated the city. The temple was filled with golden, glowing lampposts, and other lighting was located throughout the town. All of this radiance signified the Light of the forthcoming Messiah (Isaiah 49:6). The glow provided an ambience that became known as the “lighting of the temple.” Also, the entire city bore the luminosity of the torches of large numbers ofincoming travelers,. Jesus, after a night spent amongst these burning torches, said to those around Him, “I am the light of the world. He who follows me shall not walk in darkness, but have the light of life” (John 8:12). Many of today’s readers overlook the significance of Jesus’ statements about being the water and the light because they don’t catch their implications the feast’s cultural setting. This, often causes them to miss that Jesus essentially stood among the populace and told them that He was the very answer they were looking for—the cool drink to quench all thirst and the brilliance that would never leave them in the darkness.
When studied alongside end-times prophecy, the Feast of Tabernacles not only represents the Rapture and Second Coming, but the Millennial Reign of the Messiah here on earth as well. During this time, Satan will be bound and the curse of sin will be diminished . Jesus’ Kingdom will be established here on earth, and we will reign with Him (Revelation 20). The restful season of the Feast of Tabernacles foreshadows the rest God’s people will experience during this time. Further, we will finally be with our Heavenly Father, where we eternally belong. And, in contrast to the earthly “booths,” we’ll be approaching the building of our final, permanent home.
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Zechariah 14:1–19 tells us that at the time of His return, Jesus will appear in power and glory; the mountains will divide; living waters will flow from Jerusalem; He “shall be king over all the earth”; those who stood against Jerusalem will perish; and all people will honor the “feast of tabernacles of tabernacles,” lest the Lord smite them with drought, plague, and famine. This passage illustrates that this is an important feast to God. However, it is symbolically celebrated in Jerusalem, and the phrase “tabernacle of tabernacles” indicates that the final observation of this celebration is to commemorate the Final tabernacle: The New Jerusalem.
Thus, this passage makes prophetic correlation to the wedding supper of the Lamb. When Jesus comes to reign in glory and to make war with those who opposed Him, we will be invited to this event. Those inside Jerusalem will celebrate together over this feast, while those who stood against God’s armies will perish outside the gates:
And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.
Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.
And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints. (Revelation 19:6–8)
22 Tishri, The Great Sabbath
22 Tishri (the eighth day/second Sabbath of the Feast of Tabernacles) is observed as an especially “holy convocation” (Leviticus 23:36). The glorious status of this date is particularly elevated in Jewish tradition, even beyond the preceding days of the festival. In prophecy, this day is considered to be a special, Ultimate Sabbath. This represents the time that God will welcome us to a new heaven and a new earth. He will build a New Jerusalem that is a permanent structure. In the fulfillment of the prophetic eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles, we will enter the Ultimate Sabbath in a sublime new world with the Lord who loves us. He will be our God and we will be His people. He will personally wipe the tears from our eyes and will tell us that all pain is a thing of the past. He will be the only Light we need, the only home we could ever long for. And on that great day, He will declare that “it is done”:
And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.
And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband.
And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God.
And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away.
And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful.
And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely.…
And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it.
And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof. (Revelation 21:1–6 and 22–23)
A Timing Correlation?
In Genesis 22, God tested Abraham by ordering him to take Isaac to the land of Moriah and offer him as a burnt sacrifice to the Lord. The journey was three days, and at the last minute God provided a ram to offer instead. However, because of Abraham’s complete obedience to God, he was promised that his seed would be multiplied as the stars in heaven.
For those who have not heard this story, it is worthwhile to note that God did this not to encourage human sacrifice, but to test Abraham’s obedience (verse 1); Abraham knew God would provide a substitute (verse 8); and, as a very worst-case scenario, God would resurrect Isaac (Hebrews 11:19). This incident was used by God to teach Abraham a lesson that ran counter-cultural to his own experience and pagan religious surroundings: God is big enough to provide His own sacrifice, thus would never demand a human sacrifice. See author Carl Gibbs’ comment regarding this below:
In the cultural setting, the reader needs to understand that it was a common practice among pagan worshipers to offer their firstborn sons as human sacrifices. Such sacrifices were customary in Abraham’s day. Certainly it was a command Abraham would understand. At the same time God’s intention was not to teach him the merit of human sacrifice but to teach that only He could provide a sacrifice for sins. Abraham could offer only his faith.
In this text the truth taught is obedience to God, not human sacrifice. In fact, the story stands out as an apologetic against the pagan practice of appeasing a god with a sacrifice, for it teaches that God provides the sacrifice, not humankind.[iii]
Returning to the parallels between this account and that of Jesus’ crucifixion: during a three-day interim, a spiritual work of providence was being done. But the timeline is a curious element to explore as well.
Biblical scholars place the date of Abraham’s journey with Isaac at approximately two thousand years after Creation (approaching the third millennium,) and two thousand years before Christ: between 2100–1770 BC. Similar scholars (and historical documents) place Jesus’ time on earth at 6 BC–AD 2033, two thousand years after Abraham and Isaac’s pilgrimage and two thousand years ago from our present day (entering the fifth millennium). (To be sure, there are many who would debate the date of Creation, or even the Creation theory, but let us set aside that point for the moment, since our number correlation pertains to time as it is referenced from the era of the first biblically recorded man, which is Adam). The way these numbers align indicates that after the first two thousand years into His interaction with mankind, God was establishing His covenant with Israel. Two thousand years after that, He was establishing the Church and a New Covenant that invited Gentiles into the fold. And now, here we sit, two thousand years later (approaching the seventh millennium), awaiting His next move…
It would seem as though each group has likewise been reflected by the feast seasons as well (as has been stated). The spring season pertains to the nation of Israel: those whose covenant with God occurred around the two thousandth year. The summer feast season—observed through Pentecost—applies to the Gentile Church and was formed two-thousand years after the Abrahamic Covenant. As we round the corner on the next two-thousandth year (which from the Crucifixion ranges from the Apophis-Wormwood dates of 2029–2033), it will be interesting to see if the third feast season—that which features a future-facing, prophetic time of manifestation—becomes fulfilled.
It is an interesting and exciting time to be alive and watch events unfold. Now, as we approach the relative year 6000 (thus entering the seventh millennium), we near what could very well be the opening of the third feast seasons: the prophetic feasts. Up to now, we can see God using a chronological pattern that, if continued at the established pace, could line us up for end-time events soon. It could be that He soon will establish His Kingdom here on earth to reign for a Millennium with all those who He calls His own. It may seem like a sensationalistic statement, but believe it or not, there are authorities even in antiquity who believed this very notion to be plausible.
Church Fathers’ Teaching Regarding the Rapture
The Church Fathers are often referred to and remembered as men of old who divided, debated, and interpreted Scripture. Many wrote letters, doctrinal dissertations, and theological teachings regarding their analysis of God’s Word. While it’s easy for people today to take scriptural interpretation for granted, many of these men were executed for their beliefs, their work, and their stubborn refusal to denounce what they stood for theologically. Thus, they didn’t make careless statements; rather, the things they said and taught were the products of extreme conviction. Surprisingly, many of these men perceived the early parts of the seventh millennium to usher in end-time events. This notion is taken from the way they chose to interpret a few key passages, listed here:
- “For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night” (Psalm 90:4).
- “But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day” (2 Peter 3:8).
- “And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. And God blessed he seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made” (Genesis 2:2–3).
Saint Barnabas, (AD first century, approx. 70–130) taught that the Second Coming of Christ could very possibly be placed at the early phases of the seventh millennium. The reader has probably already connected the logic behind this conclusion based upon the aforementioned Scriptures: Since a day is as a thousand years to the Lord, then this would mean that in the seventh day, God intends to usher in the Ultimate Sabbath and rest.[iv] Barnabus taught that the sixth millennium would be the end of this earth’s era as we know it, and that the seventh millennium would bring on the Kingdom of Christ:
“He finished in six days.” This implieth that the Lord will finish all things in six thousand years, for a day is with Him a thousand years.… Therefore, my children, in six days, that is, six thousand years, all things will be finished. “And He rested on the seventh day.” This meaneth: when His Son, coming [again], shall destroy the time of wicked man, and judge the ungodly, and change the sun, and the moon, and the stars, then shall He truly rest on the seventh day.[v]
Ireneaus (AD 130–202) taught similarly:
For in as many days as this world was made, in so many thousand years shall it be concluded. And for this reason the Scripture says: Thus the heaven and the earth were finished, and all their adornment. And God brought to a conclusion upon the sixth day the works that He had made; and God rested upon the seventh day from all His works (Genesis 2:2). This is an account of the things formerly created, as also it is a prophecy of what is to come. For the day of the Lord is as a thousand years; (2 Peter 3:8) and in six days created things were completed: it is evident, therefore, that they will come to an end at the sixth thousand year. (Against Heresies, 5.28)[vi]
Hippolytus (cir. 170–236) reinforced this notion held by early church fathers and shared his belief that the Ultimate Sabbath would occur during the seventh millennium:
For the first appearance of our Lord in the flesh took place in Bethlehem, under Augustus, in the year 5500; and He suffered in the thirty-third year. And 6,000 years must needs be accomplished, in order that the Sabbath may come, the rest, the holy day “on which God rested from all His works.” For the Sabbath is the type and emblem of the future kingdom of the saints, when they “shall reign with Christ,” when He comes from heaven, as John says in his Apocalypse: for “a day with the Lord is as a thousand years.” Since, then, in six days God made all things, it follows that 6,000 years must be fulfilled. And they are not yet fulfilled, as John says: “five are fallen; one is,” that is, the sixth; “the other is not yet come.”[vii]
Victorinus, (AD 240) said:
Satan will be bound until the thousand years are finished; that is, after the sixth day. (Commentary on Revelation 20.1–3)[viii]
Better still, Methodius (AD 290) connected this potential six-thousand-year countdown to the final feast season when He wrote:
In the seventh millennium we will be immortal and truly celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles. (Ten Virgins 9.1)[ix]
Many other church fathers held the notion that the seventh millennium would usher in the Ultimate Sabbath; in which the Lord would reign on earth for a thousand years. Additional fathers who asserted these views included (but were certainly not limited to) Commodianus, AD 240, and Lactantius, AD 304.
Jewish Tradition Regarding Bringing on Sabbath
If it is true that we are approaching the time when God will initiate the Ultimate Sabbath, some may be tempted to claim (based on when they place the beginning of the world) that the day has either already passed to no avail, or that it is projected so far into the future that the expiration lies beyond one’s lifetime, making the matter irrelevant to them. However, understanding Sabbath initiation helps us see that there is room for variation in its timing. Since the early calendar saw the transition from one day to the next at sunset, the actual timing could be thrown off one way or another, depending on the season, cosmic alignment, and location. Bear with us while we explain.
As mentioned, some believe that the world is currently more than six thousand years old—and that we rapidly approach the entrance of the seven-thousandth year, which many Church Fathers placed around AD 2030–2060. Interestingly, Jewish tradition holds a similar notion (more on this in a minute). Many also perceive the beginning of the seven-thousandth year to be the grandiose, Ultimate Sabbath: the millennial reign of Christ. Since we’re currently in Jewish year 5780, many scholars place the Jewish year 6000 at approximately AD 2239–2240 on the Gregorian Calendar. If this theory is correct, then this logic could place these years to be among the last days that Jesus may return. These dates may seem so far off that we need not worry about them; however, it is said that He could decide to return sooner, since we are entering the last millennium. To some, this would merely be as simple as Jesus exercising His “prerogative of ushering in early on Friday afternoon.”[x] What does this mean? This is the variation by which Sabbath can be initiated early during times of the year that waiting for sunset would mean that Sabbath rituals cannot begin until extremely late at night. In such cases, Jewish tradition, via the Talmud, makes provision for an early Sabbath.
On this matter, Rabbi Baruch Davidson states:
The Talmud tells us that this world, as we know it, will last for six thousand years, with the seventh millennium ushering in the cosmic Shabbat, the Messianic Era. Six days a week we work, and on the Shabbat we rest and enjoy the fruits of our labor; the same is true with millenniums.[xi]
Jews were prompted to pray three times daily as their routine. These prayers are modeled by various devout followers of God throughout the Old Testament. The morning prayer was called the Shacharit prayer, the middayprayer was Mincha, and the evening prayer was called Maariv. Typically, the Jewish Sabbath started at sundown. However, when the sun wouldn’t set until very late, Sabbath rituals became impeded. With this in mind, many synagogues would say the evening prayer before the actual sundown, which would initiate Shabbat during the afternoon or evening that Sabbath was expected, but before actual sundown.
In these cases, the timing of the Mincha was varied, which allowed the Plag Haminchah (the midpoint prayer) to be followed directly by the Maariv prayer, which traditionally took place at nightfall, but could be spoken earlier to bring on an early Sabbath:
By praying the Minchah (afternoon) prayer before the ‘Plag Haminchah,’ which is 1 1/4 halachic hours [explained in a moment] before sunset, it is permitted to pray Maariv and accept the Shabbat [Sabbath] any time after the Plag Haminchah.[xii]
(A halachic hour isn’t a sixty-minute period as we consider it. It is, rather, one of twelve segments of a given day, divided evenly based on solar activity on that particular day. These were made up of twelve equal increments of sunlight on a given day, so a longer day meant longer halachic hours. This means the length of this increment can vary from forty-five to seventy-five minutes, depending on the season and other cosmic elements.)
The rituals altering the timing of the Minchah to bring Sabbath on earlier in the evening are complicated. (Two schools of thought have for centuries debated allowing this modification; some correlate this prayer with the afternoon sacrifice, while others move according to the offering of incense). Because the is really outside the scope of this work,we won’t elaborate here.. However, we will say that we can see each side of the debate as pre-Papture criteria that will have been met by the time the Ultimate Sabbath is ushered in. We quickly see the parallel between Jesus and the sacrifice. That has been done. “It is finished” (John 19:30). When we look for a spiritual connection to the offering of incense, we see that in Revelation 8:4, just before the angels sound the seven trumpets, there is an offering of incense. So, unless one believes the Rapture will happen far in advance of these events, this criteria is met regardless of which event the early Ultimate Sabbath must correlate to.
The implications of what such principles may have in prophecy are fascinating. It could be that the link between the two-thousand-year increments, the teachings of certain Church Fathers, and Jewish historical tradition culminate to make a similar near-future assertion. And, it is interesting that during certain periods of the year (since the onset of Sabbath is based on sundown), the afternoon and evening prayers are spoken earlier so that Sabbath comes in at the right time of the night rather than in its proper timing at sundown. With this in mind, there is room for variation regarding the arrival of the Ultimate Sabbath.[xiii]
That said, many of the Church Fathers placed this occurrence closer to the two-thousandth anniversary of Christ’s time on earth, which is the era in which we are living. In fact, scholars place Jesus’ crucifixion between AD 29–33, which means that the perfect manifestation of this time window occurs while Apophis will be just overhead, flying too close for comfort.
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[i] “Feast of Tabernacles: Commemorates the Forty-Year Wilderness Journey,” Feast & Holidays of the Bible (Carson, CA: Rose, 2004).
[ii] Booker, Celebrating Jesus in the Biblical Feasts, 146.
[iii] Gibbs, Carl, Principles of Biblical Interpretation: An Independent-Study Textbook, Fourth Ed. (Springfield, MO: Global University, 2016), 270.
[iv] Johnson, Ken, The End-Times by The Ancient Church Fathers (Biblefacts Ministries, 2016) 13.
[v] Parker, Andrew. Revelation: Revealing Ancient Understandings (Bloomington, IN: WestBow, 2017) 299–300.
[vi] Ibid., 121.
[vii] “Fathers of the Third Century: Hippolytus, Cyprian, Ca.” CCEL. 2020. Accessed July 22, 2020. https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf05.iii.iv.i.x.ii.html.
[viii] Johnson, Ken, The End-Times by The Ancient Church Fathers, 14.
[x] Davidson, Baruch, “What Is the Significance of the Year 6000 in the Jewish Calendar?” Chabad. 2020. Accessed July 22, 2020. https://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/607585/jewish/Significance-of-the-year-6000.htm.
[xii] Silberberg, Naftali, “More on Plag Haminchah.” Chabad. 2020. Accessed July 22, 2020. https://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/144443/jewish/Plag-Hamincha.htm.