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TOP SECRET SERIES—PART 22: Four Levels of Multiverse

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All this talk of wormholes and otherworldly realms demands a discussion about the multiverse idea. While the term “multiverse” is used in several different ways, they all denote a hypothetical cosmos that contains our known universe as well as numerous other regions. Frankly, the word “universe” has traditionally included the totality of all matter. In Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition (2003), “universe” is defined as: “The whole body of things and phenomena observed or postulated.” That would seem to preclude more than one, would it not? Coherence aside, some multiverse advocates even propose different laws of physics in their hypothetical nether regions.

An important precursor to understanding multiverse reasoning is the theory of inflation. Cosmic inflation theory posits that there was a period of faster-than-light acceleration during the expansion of the early universe after the Big Bang. In March of 2014, the Internet was buzzing with articles like “First Direct Evidence of Cosmic Inflation”[i] and “Direct Evidence of Big Bang Inflation,”[ii] yet less heralded were the retractions a few months later, like “Big Bang Inflation Evidence Inconclusive.”[iii] While the jury is still out, cosmological inflation is simply assumed in multiverse reasoning—the big idea being that in the first fraction of a second after the Big Bang, the universe expanded exponentially, stretching far beyond the view of the most powerful telescopes.

MIT cosmologist Max Tegmark has provided a simple, four-level classification of these regions beyond the observable universe.[iv] The levels can be understood to encompass and expand upon previous levels and are increasingly speculative. While many prominent scientists and philosophers are openly critical of Levels III and IV, Level I is relatively uncontroversial in science.

Level I

This level simply entails regions so distant that they are not able to be observed. In other words, even at the speed of light, there has not been enough time for light to traverse the enormous distance. Scientists generally agree that all regions of the Level I multiverse exhibit the same physical laws and the same constants. Astrophysicist Jeffrey Zweerink writes, “Calling Level I a ‘multiverse’ is somewhat of a misnomer because all of the observable volumes are really part of the same large universe.”[v] This one really offers no serious challenge to anthropic reasoning. Accordingly, many reserve the term “multiverse” for the more conjectural scenarios that follow.

Level II

The second level entails otherworldly realms with far-reaching implications. While the limits of observation of a single universe define the first level, the Level II multiverse entails true multiple universes ostensibly with different physical laws and constants. This idea springs from chaotic inflation theory, in which the multiverse as a whole is endlessly stretching, but some regions stop enlarging and form distinct bubbles, like the foam in a glass of soda. According to this model, our universe is merely a single bubble of the cosmic foam. It finds some support in that some versions of String Theory indicate that there are many different arrangements of physical laws and constants. Accordingly, the uniformity we observe in our universe is limited to our one bubble. Stephen Feeney at University College in London believes that evidence for these other bubble universes is present in the cosmic microwave background radiation, the heat signature “echo” of the Big Bang.[vi]

Level III

Inspired by the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, this level seems inordinately fantastic to most folks. In quantum mechanics, certain observations (like the position of an electron) cannot be predicted absolutely. Instead, there is a range of possible positions, each with a different probability.

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Quantum mechanical uncertainty can be explained in terms of every possible position or state being represented in some possible world. According to the many-worlds interpretation, each possibility generates a different universe. For example, rolling a six-sided die has six possible outcomes, such that each time the die is rolled, it lands on every number, in effect, birthing five new universes in addition to the one from which it was originally thrown. Thus, every decision creates parallel realities where every possible outcome plays out. The sheer magnitude of quantum mechanical events seems prohibitively absurd—but perhaps, fun, nonetheless. According to this model, one might imagine a universe where Richard Dawkins is a young-earth creationist or President Obama is a legitimate, natural-born American citizen. Even so, it seems that all of these wacky parallel realities occur within the same universe entailing the same physical laws and constants, so Level III is not particularly useful for describing a proper multiverse.

Level IV

Most Level II multiverse advocates allow that any possible manifestation of physical laws will appear in at least one bubble. Thus, Level IV entails the existence of every mathematically consistent possibility. If universes with every mathematically consistent set of physical laws actually exist, then no explanation is needed for the fortuitous, life-supporting universe we find ourselves in. Critics see this as a convenient ploy to escape the theistic implications of fine tuning and the anthropic principle. The Albert Einstein Professor in Science at Princeton University, Paul J. Steinhardt, called this “a pervasive idea in fundamental physics and cosmology that should be retired”[vii] and voiced his opposition to the reasoning behind the Level IV multiverse:

According to this view, the laws and properties within our observable universe cannot be explained or predicted because they are set by chance. Different regions of space too distant to ever be observed have different laws and properties, according to this picture. Over the entire multiverse, there are infinitely many distinct patches. Among these patches, in the words of Alan Guth, “anything that can happen will happen—and it will happen infinitely many times.” Hence, I refer to this concept as a Theory of Anything. Any observation or combination of observations is consistent with a Theory of Anything. No observation or combination of observations can disprove it. Proponents seem to revel in the fact that the Theory cannot be falsified. The rest of the scientific community should be up in arms since an unfalsifiable idea lies beyond the bounds of normal science. Yet, except for a few voices, there has been surprising complacency and, in some cases, grudging acceptance of a Theory of Anything as a logical possibility. The scientific journals are full of papers treating the Theory of Anything seriously. What is going on?[viii]

We believe Steinhardt has the correct analysis of the Level IV multiverse, but that doesn’t mean that something like the Level II is not possible. In fact, Steinhardt is leading advocate of braneworld theory (as introduced to our readers in Exo-Vaticana—FREE IN COLLECTION HERE).

Braneworld

Braneworld cosmology posits that our four-dimensional space-time is like the sheet of paper, a membrane or “brane” that is simply a subspace of a larger, multidimensional space. The big idea is that our visible, four-dimensional space-time universe is restricted to its own membrane inside a higher-dimensional space called “the bulk.” The bulk could contain other branes that are, for all intents and purposes, parallel universes. Within the bulk, a parallel universe might be only a hair’s width away from this universe. Matter cannot transcend its brane, but gravity does. Thus, other branes are invisible (like black holes) because its photons of light are stuck to the brane. Despite that, scientists theorize that gravitational forces can reach from one membrane-universe to another. If so, dark matter suggests the existence of other braneworlds.

Steinhardt explains, “Our three-dimensional world can be viewed as a membrane-like surface embedded into space with an extra, fourth spatial dimension.”[ix] Thus, our universe is one “braneworld” and there exists another braneworld, a parallel universe, less than an atom’s width away. This is likely a strange domain where the laws of physics might be entirely different. Does this seem too much like a science fiction novel? Not so fast; Steinhardt believes we already have quantifiable evidence for it.

He argues, “Although we can’t touch, feel, or see any matter on the other brane, we can, nevertheless, sense its existence because we can feel its gravity.”[x] He is arguing that there is no dark matter within our universe after all; rather, it is matter existing in a parallel universe. A nearby parallel reality, immune from our light, is producing gravitational effects. This readily explains dark matter, an otherwise cosmological conundrum. More interestingly, Steinhardt proposes that these two membranes might even touch at points, transferring matter and radiation from one to the other. This suggests that black holes may, in fact, be points of connection between parallel braneworlds. If an excess of matter collects at one point on either brane, its gravitational field becomes so strong that it draws the other brane towards it, and what is a black hole on one side is a white hole on the other. In this way, some black holes might be gateways to a parallel universe. This idea offers a solution as to the perplexing origin of UFOs and some paranormal phenomenon. UFOs do not seem to be propelled by conventional means.

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Mind over Matter

Ben Rich was the director of Lockheed’s Skunk Works from 1975 to 1991. In 1993, Rich shared some amazing insight with Jan Harzan, director of the Mutual UFO Network. When asked about incredible feats of UFO propulsion:

Harzan says Rich stopped and looked at him, then asked Harzan if he knew how ESP worked. Jan says he was taken aback by the question and responded, “I don’t know, all points in space and time are connected?” Rich replied, “That’s how it works.” Then he turned around and walked away.[xi]

This works nicely with J. Allen Hynek’s idea: “I hypothesize a‘M&M’ technology encompassing the mental and material realms.”[xii] But how can the mental propel the material? It turns out that mental events do profoundly impact physical reality.

Wave-Particle Duality and the Two-Slit Experiment

Photons of light sometimes behave like a wave and at other times appear to be a particle. When a light photon passes through a slit, it can take the form of a wave or particle. Before it is observed, it is literally both a particle and a wave. Status is observed as a particle produces two bands on the back wall and a wave creates an interference pattern (as seen in illustration). The status is called “super position,” which literally means that all possible outcomes exist in tandem. Once observed, a photon assumes the perceived state irrevocably. The observer-dependent status of light photons introduces the mysterious element of intelligent consciousness into the building blocks of reality. Dr. Robert Lanza explains the metaphysical implications:

Consider the famous two-slit experiment. When you watch a particle go through the holes, it behaves like a bullet, passing through one slit or the other. But if no one observes the particle, it exhibits the behavior of a wave and can pass through both slits at the same time. This and other experiments tell us that unobserved particles exist only as “waves of probability” as the great Nobel laureate Max Born demonstrated in 1926. They’re statistical predictions—nothing but a likely outcome. Until observed, they have no real existence; only when the mind sets the scaffolding in place, can they be thought of as having duration or a position in space. Experiments make it increasingly clear that even mere knowledge in the experimenter’s mind is sufficient to convert possibility to reality.[xiii]

Introducing consciousness as a determinative factor in the structure of physical reality suggests that mind is more fundamental than matter, offering a way to merge physics and consciousness. Although he embraces a monistic cosmology, B. Allen Wallace has offered a “general theory of ontological relativity” suggesting that mental phenomena supersede the material.[xiv] Of course, a biblically consistent alternative is offered in the book, The Supernatural Worldview [FREE IN COLLECTION HERE].[xv] If consciousness really is primary, the heavenly voyages described in ancient texts like Revelation and Enoch acquire a new sense of objectivity. Anthropologist Lynne Hume writes:

It may be that “consciousness” is as close to the notion of “spirit,” and “levels of consciousness” is as close to the notion of “different realms of existence,” as empiricists are willing to accept. In the end, this may be just a matter of semantics and not important to the essence of what people say they experience. Indeed, if we replace one term for another, we might end up with the same argument.[xvi]

She also notes that worldwide belief in accessing a “portal or doorway to access another type of reality is widespread.”[xvii] Perhaps descriptions of the “spirit realm,” “second heaven,” or “astral plane” are descriptions of what science deems a parallel universe?

Based on the discussed science, paranormal researchers suggest a possible explanation of apparitions:

If there are other universes that have their own separate time and space that expand and contract on their own apart from our universe, isn’t it conceivable that at some point they would intersect with our universe/dimension and produce a phenomenon that we would view as being a ghost or spirit?[xviii]

If so, then perhaps apparitions appear as misty vapors because our thin membrane of reality only overlaps with theirs momentarily, and then, “poof,” they’re gone.

The former research professor of astronomy and of the history of science at Harvard University, Owen Gingerich, has authored books defending God’s Universe (2006) and God’s Planet (2014). He famously observed that “anyone who can believe in multiple universes should have no problem believing in heaven or hell.”[xix] We believe his comment frames the discussion of portals and otherworldly realms in a sobering light for the believer as well. The reverse holds true as well: “If one can believe in heaven and hell, then one should be able to believe in other universes.” Because the Bible mentions portals to netherworlds (Revelation 9:1) as well as Heaven (Genesis 28:12), one cannot be a consistent Christian (or scientist) while summarily dismissing the subject matter of this series.

Essential Points

  • Black holes are detected by the accretion disk of vortex energy.
  • An Einstein-Rosen bridge forms when a black hole connects to another, forming a white hole.
  • All spiral galaxies might contain centralized, galactic wormhole transport systems.
  • It is theoretically possible that all black holes are wormholes.
  • It is theoretically possible to create a traversable wormhole.
  • The multiverse stems from inflation theory (that the universe expanded exponentially in the first nanoseconds after the Big Bang).
  • The Level I multiverse is uncontroversial.
  • The Level II multiverse entails distinct “universes.”
  • The Level III multiverse is based on the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics and is fancifully speculative.
  • The Level IV multiverse has been criticized as unclassifiable.
  • Braneworld theory posits true “parallel universes” and may explain dark matter.
  • VATT, LBT, and LUCIFER are confirming dark matter and wormhole theories.
  • Photons seem to be a wave and a particle.
  • Positions of quantum particles are expressed as probabilities, but once observed, they assume a position collapsing the field of probability.
  • The observer introduces the esoteric element of consciousness into physics.

UP NEXT: Secrets of the CERN Stargate

[i]http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/news/2014–05.

[ii]http://www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/direct-evidence-of-big-bang-inflation/.

[iii]“Big Bang Inflation Evidence Inconclusive.”

[iv] Max Tegmark, “Parallel Universes,” http://space.mit.edu/home/tegmark/multiverse.pdf (accessed 12-03-2014).

[v]Jeffrey A. Zweerink., Who’s Afraid of the Multiverse (Pasadena CA: Reasons to Believe, 2008) 9.

[vi]“Astronomers Find First Evidence of Other Universes,” Xb, December 13, 2010 http://www.technologyreview.com/view/421999/astronomers-find-first-evidence-of-other-universes/ (accessed December 3, 2014).

[vii]Paul Steinhardt (March 9, 2014), “Theories of Anything,  edge.org, 2014. What Scientific Idea Is Ready for Retirement? (Archived from the original on March 9, 2014; retrieved March 9, 2014).

[viii]Ibid.

[ix] Steinhardt, transcribed from: Through the Wormhole, season 2, episode 10, “Are There Parallel Universes?” (original air date: 8-3-2011), Discovery Channel.

[x]Ibid.

[xi]Alejandro Rojas, “Lockheed Skunk Works Director Says ESP Is the Key to Interstellar Travel” (video). Open Minds, July 26, 2013, http://www.openminds.tv/lockheed-skunk-works-director-says-esp-is-the-key-to-interstellar-travel-video-1092/23042 (accessed December 4, 2014).

[xii] Curtis Fuller, Proceedings of the First International UFO Congress (New York, NY: Warner Books, 1980), 164–165.

[xiii]http://www.ascsi.org/pubs/SM_holding_bay/lanza_soul.html.

[xiv]B. Alan Wallace, Hidden Dimensions: The Unification of Physics and Consciousness, pbk. ed., The Columbia Series in Science and Religion (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010) 1.

[xv] Cris Putnam, Supernatural Worldview, 438–446.

[xvi]Lynne Hume, Portals: Opening Doorways to Other Realities through the Senses (Oxford, UK: Berg, 2007) 149.

[xvii] Hume, Portals, 1.

[xviii]Chris Savia, “Gill Padilla: Ghosts: Do They Exist?”,Who Forted?http://whofortedblog.com/2014/09/03/gill-padilla-ghosts-exist/ (accessed September 19, 2014).

[xix]Owen Gingerich, cited in Dinesh D’Souza, What’s so Great About Christianity (Carol Stream, Ill.: Tyndale House., 2007) 87.

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