Back in 1884, long before the coining of terms like “flying saucer” and “extraterrestrial,” George Hawkins Pember asserted, “The seventh and most fearful characteristic of the days of Noah was the unlawful appearance among men of beings from another sphere” (emphasis added).[i] He predicted the return of the “Principality of the Air” and argued that the rise of spiritualism was its fruition. Of course, Pember has taken a lot of ribbing for his assertions since the nineteenth century because we still await the apocalypse. In like fashion, imagine the ridicule Noah endured as an apocalyptic prophet building a huge ark far removed from the sea. It is not difficult to imagine Noah was accused of something akin to “hate speech” as a pre-Flood preacher of righteousness. Also easy to conceive is that, by an assortment of antediluvian affronts, he was called a crackpot for his strange beliefs.
Similarly, a twenty-first-century evangelical can expect ridicule merely for believing the Bible, but a Christian ufologist attracts double disdain. One attracts scorn from both sides, secular and Christian. Just as it was business as usual in Noah’s day, it seems many people, especially Christians, are oblivious to the incredible aerial phenomena regularly reported by reliable witnesses worldwide. Once the hoaxes and mistaken natural phenomena are weeded out, we believe an element of those phenomena is supernatural. We will argue for the psycho-spiritual nature later, but in this entry we want to focus on public incredulousness. Jesus’ admonition was that people would ignore the signs. Facilitating that is a very real taboo on the subject. In spite of overwhelming evidence, UFOs are not taken seriously.
That UFOs are real and deserve serious scrutiny is beyond question. Recalling that the “U” in UFO denotes “unidentified,” estimates of the number of unexplained cases in official files by qualified scientists like astronomer J. Allen Hynek, computer scientist Jacques Vallée, and the late nuclear physicist Stanton Friedman range between 15 and 25 percent of cases. We prefer to call these unexplained cases residual UFOs or RUFOs, whereas the explained cases become IFOs or identified flying objects. Even a more conservative estimate like that from astrophysicist Hugh Ross (an evangelical Christian) still merits the 5-percent mark. Still, Ross elaborates, “If only 1 percent of UFO reports remain unexplained, the number of RUFOs sighted over the last five decades could range into the tens of thousands, if not many more.”[ii] Although we believe the number is much higher, the salient point is that even by the most minimal estimate, tens of thousands of inexplicable aerial craft have been baffling trained observers. Even more perplexing are the millions of reported personal encounters with their occupants.
Otherworldly encounters and alien abductions seem to suggest the eccentric and delusional, but then you read works like Abduction (1994) and Passport to the Cosmos (1999) by respected Harvard psychiatrist and Pulitzer Prize winner John Mack. Now deceased, Mack was a serious academic who risked his reputation and career to publicize the strange similarities he found in a broad spectrum of non-pathological experiencers. Were these mere delusions, the detailed correspondences should not have occurred. To his surprise, after counseling scores of abductees, he detected a remarkable coherence that inferred veracity. Intriguingly, he still determined that abduction was more spiritual than physical, albeit very real. While Mack is the academic superstar of ufology, he is by no means alone.
Another respected academic, David Jacobs, a historian specializing in popular culture at Temple University whose doctoral dissertation was published as The UFO Controversy in America by Indiana University Press in 1975, came to similar but more alarming conclusions. His subsequent works, Secret Life: Firsthand Accounts of UFO Abductions (1992); The Threat: Revealing the Secret Alien Agenda (1998); and UFOs and Abductions: Challenging the Borders of Knowledge (2000), came to the conclusion that extraterrestrial biological entities (ETBEs) are not only visiting Earth but are actually abducting millions of human beings worldwide to extract genetic material for the purpose of creating a race of hybrids. Another academic, Karla Turner, who authored Into the Fringe (1992); Taken: Inside the Alien-Human Abduction Agenda (1994); and Masquerade of Angels (1994), not only concurred with Jacobs, she testified in great detail that it was happening to her!
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Since qualified scientists and otherwise credible academics draw these conclusions, why is the UFO subject still routinely ridiculed? One simple explanation is that the ambiguous nature of the term UFO invites equivocation. The acronym “UFO,” meaning “Unidentified Flying Object,” was the brainchild of Capt. Edward J. Ruppelt, chief of the official Air Force investigating agency, Project Blue Book, to replace the then-dominant terms “flying saucer” or “flying disk.”[iii] In truth, even “flying saucer” was a misnomer, because Kenneth Arnold actually said he saw a boomerang-shaped craft that skipped along like a saucer skims the water when tossed over a lake. Nevertheless, the term “flying saucer” captured the imagination of the public and popular press and became an infectious idea.
Speaking of that famous sighting by Arnold, Ruppelt wrote, “It is well known that ever since the first flying saucer was reported in June 1947 the Air Force has officially said that there is no proof that such a thing as an interplanetary spaceship exists. But what is not well known is that this conclusion is far from being unanimous among the military and their scientific advisers because of the one word, proof; so the UFO investigations continue.”[iv] Even so, it is important to note that the same year, Air Force General Nathan Twining admitted in a classified document that, “The phenomenon is something real and not visionary or fictitious.”[v] Ruppelt goes on about military fighter planes pursuing and firing upon unknown craft, craft that were simultaneously locked on ground radar and seen by pilots, and craft that evaded and sped away with ease. He then asks rhetorically, “Doesn’t this constitute proof?”[vi] As incredible as it seems, the dogfight situation has occurred many times, as documented by recent authors Richard Dolan and Leslie Kean mentioned below.
It is apparent that Ruppelt usually meant something like “flying saucer” when he employed the term “UFO” in his own writings. While it usually implies something more than “unidentified,” the operative term, “UFO,” stuck. The problem is that most people mean something more like flying saucer but the imprecise terminology leaves enough ambiguity for skeptics like Neil deGrasse Tyson to equivocate and ridicule. In his keynote address at a skeptic convention, Tyson ridiculed UFOs:
[When] someone says they saw a UFO, remind them what the U stands for! Okay? Un-identified! Because then they say, “I saw a UFO”; I say, “Oh! What did it look like?” [They said,] “Oh! It was like, a spaceship and it came from another planet” and then, then I said, “But you just said, you didn’t know what it was ’cuz… you said it was unidentified!”[vii]
Tyson then accuses the witness of making an argument from ignorance. This is a disingenuous equivocation based on the imprecise nature of terminology, because, in truth, the person had a description of what he saw. Part of the problem is that the term “UFO” is inclusive of what can later turn out to be IFOs. Accordingly, RUFO (residual unidentified flying object) offers some much-needed precision. It still begs the question of why, in the face of so many RUFO cases, the intelligentsia remains so skeptical.
Jacques Vallée has addressed this sort of behavior as part of an intentional disinformation effort to subvert honest research: “To prevent genuine scientific study from being organized, all that is needed is to maintain a certain threshold of ridicule around the phenomenon. This can be done easily enough by a few influential science writers, under the guise of humanism or rationalism.”[viii] While we do not know that Tyson is intentionally filling this role, we find his demeanor to be exactly what one would expect given Vallée’s analysis. Even so, it is probably that Tyson has the best of intentions.
Another reason otherwise smart people, like Tyson, snicker at the subject is ignorance. A 1979 poll of scientists and engineers reported that 18 percent had seen a UFO.[ix] The UFO Skeptic website reports that:
When Prof. Peter Sturrock, a prominent Stanford University plasma physicist, conducted a survey of the membership of the American Astronomical Society in the 1970s, he made an interesting finding: astronomers who spent time reading up on the UFO phenomenon developed more interest in it. If there were nothing to it, you would expect the opposite: lack of credible evidence would cause interest to wane. But the fact of the matter is, there does exist a vast amount of high quality, albeit enigmatic, data.[x]
The people who snicker have not done their homework. The fact of the matter is that the more informed one is about the subject of RUFOs, the more likely one is to believe something extraordinary is occurring. The problem, even among brilliant scientists, is lack of appropriate education.
Friedman, who has been lecturing on the subject at colleges and universities in eighteen countries for a few decades, reports, “In my lectures I review 5 large scale scientific studies and ask after each one how many have read it. Typically fewer than 2% have read any.”[xi] In view of that, we believe the evidence is there if people are willing to study. There exists a wealth of high-quality scholarship stretching back fifty years from the early works of Hynek and Vallée to the recent works by historian Richard Dolan and investigative journalist Leslie Kean. Data wise, there is such an embarrassment of riches that contemporary researchers do not think collecting new case studies is the most profitable way to proceed. We will discuss methodology in a later entry, but for now, let’s review some of the latest literature. These are recent books that we feel will convince nearly anyone except the most determined, close-minded skeptic.
Richard Dolan’s first volume, UFOs and the National Security State: Chronology of a Coverup, 1941–1973, and second volume, The Cover-Up Exposed, 1973–1991, from a meticulously documented, two-part, chronological narrative of the US national security dimensions of the UFO phenomenon from 1941 until modern history. Working from a wealth of recently declassified documents, there are many startling cases demonstrating government culpability. Solid cases reported by military witness with corroborating radar and visual confirmations, alleged crash retrievals, and even some involving the death of military personnel have been recorded in official documents. This book demonstrates conclusively that, contrary to the party line, secrets are being kept. The evidence is weighty, and Dolan boils it all down to two possible conclusions: It is either secret, man-made antigravity technology or “UFOs are the product of an alien technology.”[xii] He argues the likelihood of the former is slim to none, as that craft appeared long before the technology seems remotely feasible. He supports this argument by referring to the fact that the early intelligence efforts to assess the German and Soviet abilities evidenced in the declassified1947 Schulgen memo came up empty-handed and consequently suggested the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH).[xiii] In 1948, Project Sign came to a similar conclusion. Dolan concedes that the only evidence for the ETH is eyewitness testimony, photographs, and radar tracking. He makes a good case for alien technology, but the elephant in the room is the complete lack of evidence that these craft originate from distant galaxies. While terrestrial radar sightings are abundant, we know of no documented occasion when a craft was tracked coming from another galaxy.
While Dolan certainly acknowledges that “it is quite possible that UFOs have existed for millennia,”[xiv] a limitation of his focus is that one could walk away with the mistaken impression that RUFOs are a modern phenomenon. Nonetheless, he argues cogently that the exponential advances in aircraft and radar technology during World War II contributed to more reporting of the phenomenon and a consequentially more diverse phenomenology. In other words, one reason more RUFOs are reported today is because we are technologically more capable of seeing them, but it may also imply a transformation in our consciousness.
Carl Jung believed the latter to be the case, and we will discuss some of his observations within this series. Yet, strange craft in the sky are nothing new. In the forward of Dolan’s first volume, Vallée asserts, “UFOs have been with us since the beginning of recorded history.”[xv] Indeed, Vallée’s Passport to Magonia (1969) and recent work coauthored with scholar Chris Aulbeck, Wonders in the Sky: Unexplained Aerial Objects from Antiquity to Modern Times (2010), are seminal works preserving that history. Be that as it may, an intellectually honest reader will not come away from Dolan’s volumes unimpressed. In addition, Leslie Kean’s effort on contemporary cases is of similarly high quality.
Kean’s work, UFOs: Generals, Pilots and Government Officials Go on the Record, offers only unimpeachable cases with multiple reliable witnesses and corroborating data. Chapters are authored by military personnel like Major General Wilfried De Brouwer from Belgium, airline pilots like Captain Ray Bowyer, and government officials like Fife Symington, the former governor of Arizona. Preference is given to officially documented cases, often involving skeptical, trained observers, and the international scope of this book confirms a global phenomenon. Astonishingly, Kean reports mass sightings of huge craft like the Belgian wave, the Hudson Valley wave, and the mile-wide, delta-shaped craft that silently glided over Phoenix, Arizona, that brings to mind scenes from the film Independence Day, including gape-mouthed bystanders standing roadside. Yes, events like that have really happened and a few will be vetted in another part of this series.
Overall, Kean’s book offers cogent analysis and further suggests a rationale for why the government seemingly has “a powerful desire to do nothing”[xvi] or a UFO taboo. Departing from Dolan’s perspective, Kean takes the position that the government is likely concealing its ignorance rather than its knowledge. Either way, there is a conspiracy of silence. As with Dolan’s work, an open-minded reader who digests Kean’s book will be convinced that RUFOs are very real, extremely strange, and by no means resolved by conventional explanations. In addition, there is a documentary film, I Know What I Saw, based on Kean’s book.[xvii]
Commenting on the lack of outcry concerning the Westchester Boomerang, a massive V-shaped craft seen close up by thousands of awestruck New Yorkers between 1982 and 1985, Hynek mused, “As a homely analogy, one might say that such a totally novel idea ‘overheats the mental human circuits’ and the fuse blows (or the circuit-breaker cuts out) as a protective device for the mind. The time is not yet right for the age and the new idea might just as well not [have] been there in the first place. Mankind was not yet able to handle it.”[xviii] In other words, perhaps it is a psychological denial mechanism, and most people, consciously or unconsciously, simply prefer not to know. Neil Tyson’s argument from ignorance comes full circle.
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Nevertheless, a recent poll by National Geographic indicated that only 36 percent of Americans (80 million people) believe RUFOs exist.[xix] The results align with more scientific studies like the 2008 survey conducted by Scripps Howard News Service and Ohio University, which also found that one-third of adults believe it’s either “very likely” or “somewhat likely” that intelligent extraterrestrials have visited Earth. Even more, 56 percent say it is either “very likely” or “somewhat likely” that intelligent life exists on other planets. One in twelve said he or she had personally seen a UFO that might have been an alien spaceship. The study also reported that people who had recently attended church, and who personally identify as born again, are less likely to believe in UFOs or the existence of ETs. We hope to convert you, our readers, from the former—to believe RUFOs exist—while encouraging you to remain skeptical as to the latter. Of those 36 percent of Americans polled who believe, it is safe to assume the majority, we think unfortunately, agree with Friedman that RUFOs are alien spacecraft.
The late Stanton Friedman, an articulate and persuasive speaker, was a leading advocate for the ETH or the idea that RUFOs are spacecraft from other planets. Like Dolan, he was convinced the government is covering something up. He argued, “I have spent time at 20 archives, had a security clearance for 14 years, and find it perfectly obvious that crucial data has been withheld and many government people have lied with regard to UFOs.”[xx] It appears that 79 percent of Americans in the National Geographic survey agree with Friedman and Dolan that the United States government is involved in a cover-up. Even so, it is important to note that one does not necessitate the other. For example, the government could be hiding the fact that UFOs are not alien spacecraft. This also explains the 43-percent gap between 36 percent with ET belief and 79 percent with conspiracy belief. While most likely assume it is top-secret military aircraft, there is another, less terrestrial, possibility. In fact, of the four scientists listed above, Friedman is in the minority.
While differing in particulars, Hynek, Vallée, and Ross lean toward the interdimensional hypothesis (IDH), which posits what is, for all intents and purposes, a supernatural explanation. Ross defines the IDH as the idea that “such phenomena belong not to extraterrestrial spacecraft but to another realm of reality beyond the time-space continuum.”[xxi] As a result, Hynek coined the term “meta-terrestrial,” and Vallée wrote, “I do not think they are extraterrestrial in the ordinary sense of the term. In my view, they present an exciting challenge to our concept of reality itself.”[xxii] We will discuss the arguments against the ETH in “Astrobiology and the Extraterrestrial Worldview.” It is intriguing that Vallée’s ideas find more coherence with a biblical worldview than most. It is quite clear from his writings that he maintains a supernatural worldview if not a Christian one.
From Vallée, we learn that another reason RUFOs are routinely dismissed is that they behave in absurd and arguably diversionary ways. In other words, they avoid detection by betraying coherent patterns. For instance, researchers have cataloged thousands of ships of varying colors, shapes, and sizes. It seems unimaginable that thousands of races of ETs are visiting Earth and even more absurd that one race would use such a diversity of ships. John Keel wrote, “Because the witnesses seem to be telling the truth, we must assume that UFOs come in myriad sizes and shapes. Or no real shapes at all. This leads us to the old psychological warfare gambit once more. If the phenomenon has built-in discrepancies, then no one will take it seriously.”[xxiii] In other words, if sightings worldwide were consistent, it would cause alarm, but the lack of consistency serves as camouflage. Either the so-called ETs employ their ships once and discard them, or the ships are not really machines in a conventional sense. We affirm the latter. Even more perplexing are the entities themselves.
Although the diminutive grey alien seems to dominate the public consciousness, there are a wide variety of entities attested to in the literature. Because the likelihood of one truly extraterrestrial race on Earth seems low to scientists, the odds of so many races visiting Earth simultaneously seems ludicrous. Even so, this is what the evidence from witnesses seems to imply. Sergeant Clifford Stone of the US Army testified to the National Press Club in Washington, DC about having catalogued fifty-seven different species of aliens as a part of his official military duty.[xxiv] Thus, for a critical thinker, the sheer variety begs incredulity and casts doubt on such testimony. Furthermore, if the ETs are biological entities, why do they so closely resemble occult phenomena, as in the case of Aleister Crowley’s drawing of the demonic entity Lam summoned through ritual magick, decades before the grey alien entered the public consciousness?
Next, one does not have to survey much of the literature to notice that the messages coming from these entities are often contradictory and absurd. Contactees and channelers—like George Adamski in the 1950s, Ruth Norman in the 1980s, and recently Blossom Goodchild—are routinely betrayed and played for fools by the so-called space brothers. The diversity of beings and deceptive, occult connotations leads many critics to assume the phenomenon is wholly delusional.
While some of this diversity is indicative of hoaxes, the sheer volume of credible cases infers an underlying reality. Perhaps the RUFO phenomenon and the associated beings are intentionally promoting an absurd veneer. This is where Vallée makes a keen observation:
If you wanted to bypass the intelligentsia and the church, remain undetectable to the military system, leave undisturbed the political and administrative levels of a society, and at the same time implant deep within that society far-reaching doubts concerning its basic philosophical tenets, this is exactly how you would have to act. At the same time of course, such a process would have to provide its own explanation to make ultimate detection impossible. In other words, it would have to project an image just beyond the belief structure of the target society. It would have to disturb and reassure at the same time, exploiting both the gullibility of the zealots and the narrow-mindedness of the debunkers. This is exactly what the UFO phenomenon does.[xxv]
In all likelihood, RUFOs and their associated entities have a method to their madness. Like shape-shifting tricksters, they confound, subvert, and divide, leaving believers confused and skeptics assured. A survey of technical professionals determined that only one in twelve bothered to report a UFO encounter.[xxvi] This is not surprising, given the taboo with the ridicule and career risk from naturalist orthodoxy. Consequently, the likelihood of widespread underreporting causes a vicious circle of ignorance. Why is this the case?
It seems the elite have a vested interest in keeping the topic out of bounds. Taking a cue from Kean, we obtained an astonishing analysis of this UFO taboo from a scholarly political science journal, Political Theory, called “Sovereignty and the UFO” by Drs. Alexander Wendt and Raymond Duvall, an article of unprecedented significance. The analysis determined that governments, specifically the United States, intentionally avoid the subject because it threatens their authority. They describe the situation that, “Considerable work goes into ignoring UFOs, constituting them as objects only of ridicule and scorn. To that extent one may speak of a ‘UFO taboo,’ a prohibition in the authoritative public sphere on taking UFOs seriously, or ‘thou shalt not try very hard to find out what UFOs are.’”[xxvii] On a rational basis, the taboo does not make sense.
The writers list several arguments as to why the subject merits study. At the top of the list is the fact that if genuine ETs are verified, it would be one of the most important discoveries in history. After all, millions of dollars are being funneled into astrobiology with absolutely no evidence behind it, yet we have mountains of UFO data that is dogmatically ignored. In contrast to official pronouncements, the authors write, “UFOs have never been systematically investigated by science or the state, because it is assumed to be known that none are extraterrestrial. Yet in fact this is not known, which makes the UFO taboo puzzling given the ET possibility.”[xxviii] The real reason for the taboo lies in the elite’s lust for power.
The two political scientists determined that political sovereignty is man-centered or anthropocentric. It follows that the elites base their status on the assumption of naturalism and man being the pinnacle of nature places themselves as universal sovereigns. In this way, the existence of entities other than man threatens the elite’s claim to power. Politically, the nation-state would be forced to concede as ET’s “confirmed presence would create tremendous pressure for a unified human response, or world government.”[xxix] A provocative analogy is made between Christ’s Second Coming and ET disclosure, “Imagine a counterfactual world in which God visibly materialized (as in the Christians’ “Second Coming,” for example): to whom would people give their loyalty, and could states in their present form survive were such a question politically salient?”[xxx] In other words, the powers that be have a vested interest in squelching any belief system that threatens their power, be it God or ET. It is not so much that they are hiding the truth about RUFOs as it is that they do not want it investigated. Even so, the poignant analogy above also begs the question, given the alternatives of Christ or self-proclaimed ET saviors: To whom would the people give their loyalty?
By way of summary, we believe the following points contribute to a vicious cycle leaving the public uninformed and ill-prepared to deal with a disclosure-type event involving extraterrestrials.
- We argued that because only a small percentage of UFOs are extraordinary, the large number of intentional hoaxes and mistaken identification of natural phenomenon discredits legitimate research.
- All of these are lumped together under the same classification and, consequently, imprecise terminology leads to confusion and equivocation.
- The phenomenon itself promotes absurdities as a form of camouflage.
- Consequently, ridicule of the subject discourages investigation and most cases go unreported.
- Despite the evidence for extraordinary craft, the elite promote a taboo because it threatens their sovereignty.
- The taboo ensures that rigorous scientific study does not occur.
- Widespread ignorance of the data creates a vicious cycle which circles back around.
It seems that the prophetic trends enumerated by Pember and the sanctified ignorance of the elite strongly support that we live in days like those of Noah—days when, despite the extraordinary signs and things coming upon the Earth, people turn a blind eye, maintaining the status quo just as it was “until the flood came, and destroyed them all” (Luke 17:27).
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[i] G.H. Pember, Earth’s Earliest Ages (Kindle locations 3433–3434).
[ii] Hugh Ross, Kenneth Samples, and Mark Clark, Lights in the Sky & Little Green Men: A Rational Christian Look at UFOs and Extraterrestrials (Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2002), 29.
[iii] Edward J. Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (Cherry Hill Publishing; eBook; 2012). (Ruppelt writes,“UFO is the official term that I created to replace the words ‘flying saucers.’” See: http://books.google.com/books?id=Fjdg1CtLNUQC&lpg=PP1&pg=PT6#v=onepage&q&f=false.)
[v] “The Twining Memo” The Roswell Files, last accessed December 7, 2012, http://www.roswellfiles.com/FOIA/twining.htm.
[vi] Edward J. Ruppelt, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects.
[vii] “Neil deGrasse Tyson: UFO Sightings,” YouTube video, 5:27, a short excerpt from his Keynote presentation at the Amazing Meeting 6 in Las Vegas, NV, posted by AmazingMeetingVideos, last updated February 24, 2009, last accessed December 7, 2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xag3oOzvU68. (accessed 09/25/2012). Time 00:14 -00:35.
[viii] Jacques Vallée, Dimensions: a Casebook of Alien Contact (Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books, 1988), 249.
[ix] “Good Chance UFOs Exist in Some Form,” Industrial Research/Development 21 (July, 1979): 139–40.
[x] Bernard Haisch, “An Information Site on the UFO Phenomenon By and For Professional Scientists,” last accessed December 7, 2012, http://www.ufoskeptic.org/.
[xi] Stanton T. Friedman, “The UFO ‘Why?’ Questions,” StantonFriedman.com, last accessed December 7, 2012, http://www.stantonfriedman.com/index.php?ptp=articles&fdt=2006.11.10&prt=1.
[xii] Richard M. Dolan, UFOs and the National Security State: Chronology of a Cover-Up: 1941–1973 (Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc.), Kindle location 9325.
[xiii] Ibid., Kindle location 9307–9327.
[xiv] Ibid., Kindle location 691.
[xv] Ibid., Kindle location 304.
[xvi] Leslie Kean, UFOs: Generals, Pilots and Government Officials Go On the Record (New York, NY: Random House, Inc., 2012), chapter title heading, 153.
[xvii] For more information on this movie, see the I Know What I Saw website here: http://www.iknowwhatisawthemovie.com/.
[xviii] J. Allen Hynek, “The Roots of Complacency,” The J Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies, last accessed December 7, 2012, http://www.cufos.org/hynek_prefix.html.
[xix]Natalie DiBlasio, “A Third of Earthlings Believe in UFOs, Would Befriend Aliens,” USA TODAY, June 26, 2012, http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/story/2012-06-26/ufo-survey/55843742/1.
[xx] Stanton T. Friedman, “The UFO ‘Why?’ Questions.”
[xxi]Hugh Ross, Kenneth Samples, and Mark Clark, Lights in the Sky & Little Green Men, 32.
[xxii]Jacques Vallée, Dimensions: A Casebook of Alien Contact (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1988), x.
[xxiii] John A. Keel, Operation Trojan Horse (Lilburn, GA: Illuminet Pr, 1996), 126–127.
[xxiv] “Alien species, 57 catalogued varieties,” YouTube video, 3:56, part of The Disclosure Project, posted by “Tommy Tajeda,” updated November 2, 2008, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K6uC0CKBWaM.
[xxv] Jacques Vallée, Dimensions, 178.
[xxvi] Jacques Vallée, Dimensions, 226.
[xxvii] Alexander Wendt and Raymond Duvall, “Sovereignty and the UFO,” Political Theory, last accessed (member access or registration required to view article) December 7, 2012, http://ptx.sagepub.com/content/36/4/610.
[xxviii] Ibid., http://ptx.sagepub.com/content/36/4/607.
[xxix] Ibid., http://ptx.sagepub.com/content/36/4/621.
[xxx] Ibid., http://ptx.sagepub.com/content/36/4/609.
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