“It was the darndest thing I’ve ever seen. It was big, it was very bright, it changed colors and it was about the size of the moon. We watched it for ten minutes, but none of us could figure out what it was. One thing’s for sure, I’ll never make fun of people who say they’ve seen unidentified objects in the sky.” —Former US President Jimmy Carter to reporters during the 1976 presidential election campaign
In 2006, Dr. Michael S. Heiser, Hebrew scholar and expert in ancient Semitic languages, was invited to speak at the formative meeting of a new think tank for evangelical Christian scholars, pastors, and lay researchers concerned with the spread of neo-pagan/occult worldviews in society and the Church. His lecture was entitled, “Ancient Mysteries and Alien Gods: Why People Reject Christ for a Paranormal Worldview.” According to Dr. Heiser, there were perhaps only a half dozen people in the room who had ever heard about ufology in any academic sense, and even those aware of it had never been confronted with the physical evidence and peer-reviewed research with respect to UFOs and alleged alien abductions. They, like so many leaders in Christendom, had simply dismissed the subject altogether. “My task,” he later wrote, “was to convince them in one hour that the subject was real, merited academic study, and was of special concern to Christians, primarily because these phenomena are a critical means of advancing an occult, worldview agenda. This is true even if those behind UFOs and abductions are not demonic manifestations, though that approach is a coherent one.”[i]
Heiser went on to explain that the majority of Americans believe that Earth has been visited by aliens, that they have seen a UFO (and believe it to have been extraterrestrial in origin), and that the US government is deliberately hiding proof of alien life and contact. Thus, if Christian leaders substantially ignore the subject of UFOs, alien visitations, and evidence of a government cover-up, they forfeit their ability to answer a number of sincere and compelling questions from people within the Church and in secular communities and, thus, become worldview irrelevant to a large percentage of the culture.
Over the near decade since Heiser’s presentation to the evangelical think tank, the need for Christian leaders to remain relevant on the issue of UFO-related phenomena has increased significantly. This is partly due to a new global wave of unidentified objects observed around the world; increasing openness by public observers with readily available technology (such as cell phones with cameras) who are progressively more comfortable sharing what they have captured on film; and, finally, what can only be described as a watershed moment in history in which former high-ranking members of the military, airline pilots, aviation experts, and government officials are coming forward now to admit compelling accounts of UFO and alien-contact events and top-secret government investigations, which, disconcertingly, appear designed to move mankind toward an imminent tipping point of acceptance of the larger extraterrestrial implications.
Among those who have stepped forward recently are former Air Force Colonol Charles Halt, retired Army Colonol John Alexander, retired Air Force Colonol Bill Coleman (chief spokesman for Project Blue Book 1961–1963), and Nick Pope, who served for twenty-one years at the British Government’s Ministry of Defence, specifically heading up their department responsible for investigating UFOs. The occasion that most recently brought these men and others together was a September 22, 2012, symposium hosted by the Smithsonian-affiliated National Atomic Testing Museum (NATM).
During the NATM event, which presented experts who had worked directly and indirectly in official government capacities investigating UFOs in the past, Charles Halt accused the federal government of having a “secret agency” that is concealing from the public UFO activity directly related to extraterrestrial visitations. Halt was the deputy base commander at Brentwaters Air Base during the famous Rendlesham Forest UFO incident, and it was his official “Unexplained Lights” memo (below, dated January 13, 1981) to the British Ministry of Defence detailing the event that was later released under the Freedom of Information Act and published in British Press that cast light on the unusualness of what happened there.
Three weeks following the September 22, 2012, NATM presentations mentioned above, Nick Pope was back in the news under the fantastic headline: “Britain Has Alien-War Weapons, Says Former Government Advisor [Nick Pope].” The story unveiled how, behind the scenes, the United Kingdom’s Ministry of Defence (MoD) evidently takes the idea of aliens and even potential conflict with malevolent extraterrestrials very seriously. Hinting at what Britain is doing to anticipate intergalactic war, Pope admitted: “We do have several prototype aircraft and drones and other weapons you won’t see on the news for another 10–15 years so if we did face a threat from the unknown then even if there is no Torchwood around now [Torchwood is the alien-hunting team from the BBC science-fiction series of the same name], there would be something like it by then and they certainly would have some great kit to help in the fight.”[ii] Pope then explained how such a threat from a source beyond Earth could lead to a global world front, saying, “One possibility would be trying to unite all the nations of the world. For those who think that far-fetched, Ronald Reagan once hinted at it in a speech to the UN. He said, ‘I occasionally think how quickly we would set aside our difference[s] if we faced some alien threat from the other side.’”[iii] John Dewey, professor of philosophy at Columbia University, reflected the same as far back as 1917 when he remarked, “The best way to unite all the nations on this globe would be an attack from some other planet,”[iv] an idea confirmed by political scientists Alexander Wendt and Raymond Duvall in their landmark essay, “Sovereignty and the UFO,” which argued, “The ontological threat is that even if the ETs were benign, their confirmed presence would create tremendous pressure for a unified human response, or world government.”[v]
We wanted to know more about the potential alien threat; the Rendlesham Forest event (what Nick Pope now calls “Britain’s Roswell”); the actual 1947 Roswell, New Mexico, incident; and UFO investigations in general, so we contacted experts in these specific fields, including Nick Pope, Dr. Bruce Maccabee, nuclear physicist Stanton Friedman, and Colonol Jesse Marcel Jr. (the only man the US government admits handled the Roswell debris). What follows are excerpts from the larger transcripts of those discussions.
Interview with Nick Pope (Featured in Upcoming GREAT DELUSION Documentary):[vi]
HORN: Nick. Thanks for joining me today. Earlier this year, I emailed you when Britain declared it was going to open its MoD UFO files to the public. Because you had run this department for the British government, I wanted to know if we should expect anything unusual in these materials. You emailed me back to say that I should not expect a smoking gun, but that there were some devils in the details. What has been the result of the MoD files going public?
POPE: Although a good deal of material is already available at the National Archives and on the MoD website, the rest of the UFO files have yet to be made public. Two separate things are happening right now. Firstly, 24 Defence Intelligence Staff UFO files are going to be considered for release. These were part of a much larger batch of files (on various subjects) that had been contaminated with asbestos. Originally it was feared they’d have to be destroyed, sparking outrage from historians and leading to various conspiracy theories. At huge cost, the files have now been decontaminated and can be considered for release in the normal way. Numerous ufologists have made Freedom of Information Act requests in relation to these files. The second thing that’s happening is that the MoD has decided to release its entire archive of UFO files, not least because of the increasing burden of responding to FOI requests (the MoD get more FOI requests in relation to UFOs than on any other subject, including the war in Iraq). This is a massive job and may take months, if not years, as personal details of witnesses have to be removed, along with any information that would genuinely compromise national security—e.g. information on the capability of military radar systems.
HORN: When and why was the MoD’s UFO project set up?
POPE: The MoD’s UFO project has its roots in a 1950 initiative by the then Chief Scientific Adviser, Sir Henry Tizard. He said that UFO sightings shouldn’t be dismissed out of hand without some form of proper scientific study. The MoD then set up a body called the Flying Saucer Working Party, to look into the phenomenon. It reported its sceptical conclusions (that UFO sightings were attributable to misidentifications, hoaxes or delusions) in 1951 and recommended that no further action be taken. But there was a series of high-profile UFO sightings in 1952 when UFOs were tracked on radar and seen by military pilots. This forced the RAF and the MoD to think again, and the Department has been investigating UFO sightings pretty much continuously since then. To date, there have been over 10,000 sightings reported to the MoD.
HORN: What is the MoD’s policy on UFOs?
POPE: The policy is to investigate UFO sightings to see whether there’s evidence of anything of any defence significance, i.e. evidence of any threat to the defence of the UK, or information that may be of use to us, scientifically or militarily. Having a UFO project in no way implies a corporate belief in extraterrestrial visitation. It simply reflects the fact that we keep a watchful eye on our airspace and want to know about anything operating in the United Kingdom’s Air Defence Region. Although the British effort was on a much smaller scale, the terms of reference and methodology were virtually identical to that of the United States Air Force study, Project Blue Book.
HORN: MoD also acknowledged that a government UFO unit, known as S4(Air) and DI55, existed. Tells us about this unit and what it did (or does).
POPE: S4(Air) no longer exists. It was a division that had responsibility for UFO investigations some years ago. Like any bureaucracy, the MoD undergoes frequent reorganisations where divisions are opened, closed, merged, split or restructured. It’s a nightmare! So, over the years, all sorts of different areas have had responsibility for UFOs, leading some researchers to wrongly conclude there are many different areas of the MoD all working on the subject. In fact, at any one time, there’ll be a division that has the lead for policy and investigations (i.e. where I worked) and a number of other areas on whose specialist skills and expertise the lead division can call. DI55 is part of the Defence Intelligence Staff. They were one of the specialist branches that I could bring in to assist me with certain aspects of my UFO investigations. Up until a few years ago I couldn’t talk about this aspect of my work at all, or even acknowledge the existence of DI55. Recently, however, details have emerged under FOI, including some documents relating to my own dealings with them. But as I’m sure you’ll understand, this is still an area of my work that I can’t discuss in any great detail.
HORN: How were you recruited into the UFO Project?
POPE: I joined the Ministry of Defence in 1985. At the time, the policy was to move people every 2 or 3 years—either on level transfer or promotion—so that everybody gained experience in a wide range of different jobs: policy, operations, personnel, finance, etc. I’d done 2 or 3 different jobs and prior to taking up my post on the UFO project I was working in a division called Secretariat(Air Staff), where I’d been seconded into the Air Force Operations Room in the Joint Operations Centre. I worked there in the run-up to the first Gulf War, during the war itself, and in the aftermath of the conflict. It was while working there that I was approached and asked whether, after I was released from duties in the Joint Operations Centre, I would like to run the UFO project, which was embedded in another part of Secretariat(Air Staff). I accepted the invitation. So, in a sense, I was headhunted.
HORN: Did your views change from the time you started working with MoD until you left the department?
POPE: I knew little about the subject before I joined and I certainly had no belief in extraterrestrials. So while I was open-minded in all my investigations, my start point was broadly sceptical. As I began to read into the archive of previous files, and as I began to undertake my own official research and investigation, my views began to change and I became more open to the possibility that some UFOs had more exotic explanations. What impressed me most were cases where UFOs were seen by trained observers such as police officers, where they were tracked on radar, where they were seen by pilots, and where there was evidence to suggest that UFOs were performing speeds and manoeuvres way ahead of the capabilities of even our most advanced aircraft. My position now is that while I can’t say what these UFOs are, the phenomenon raises important defence, national security and flight safety issues. I’ve seen no proof that these things are extraterrestrial, but I don’t rule out this possibility.
HORN: What were your procedures / protocols for investigating UFO sightings?
POPE: We used to receive 200–300 reports each year and the methodology of an investigation is fairly standard. Firstly, you interview the witness to obtain as much information as possible about the sighting: date, time and location of the sighting, description of the object, its speed, its height, etc. Then you attempt to correlate the sighting with known aerial activity such as civil flights, military exercises or weather balloon launches. We could check with the Royal Greenwich Observatory to see if astronomical phenomena such as meteors or fireballs might explain what was seen. We could check to see whether any UFOs seen visually had been tracked on radar. If we had a photograph or video, we could get various MoD specialists to enhance and analyse the imagery. We could also liaise with staff at the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System at RAF Fylingdales, where they have space-tracking radar. Finally, on various scientific and technical issues, we could liaise with the Defence Intelligence Staff, although as I’ve said previously, this is an area of my work that I can’t discuss in any detail.
HORN: What did you conclude about the majority of your investigations?
POPE: I concluded that sightings could be categorised as follows. Around 80% could be explained as misidentifications of something mundane, such as aircraft lights, weather balloons, satellites, meteors, etc. In approximately 15% of cases there was insufficient information to make a firm assessment. That left around 5% of sightings that seemed to defy any conventional explanation. But while we could say with reasonable certainty what these 5% weren’t, we couldn’t say what they were. They were by definition unknown, unexplained, or whatever word you care to use.
HORN: The Flying Saucer Working Party was set up in October 1950 by Ministry of Defence Chief Scientific Adviser Sir Henry Tizard. Was this a reaction to the 1947 Roswell incident or something else?
POPE: It wasn’t a reaction to the Roswell incident, but to increasing numbers of UFO sightings in the UK and elsewhere, and to the associated media coverage. As a scientist, Tizard knew that any assessment of UFOs not based on investigation was assumption and guesswork, and therefore meaningless. He didn’t have any firm view on the phenomenon but he knew UFOs were being reported in considerable numbers and he wanted to know what they were.
HORN: Britain’s most sensational UFO case occurred in December 1980 in Rendlesham Forest, between RAF Bentwaters and RAF Woodbridge. Tell us about that.
POPE: This is the UK’s most famous UFO incident and it’s sometimes referred to as “Britain’s Roswell”. Over a series of nights in December 1980 UFOs were seen by dozens of United States Air Force personnel at Bentwaters and Woodbridge, two RAF bases operated by the Americans. On the first night the UFO landed in Rendlesham Forest (which lies between the two bases) and one of the witnesses got close enough to touch it. Sketches from the USAF witness statements clearly show a craft with strange markings on its hull, which have been likened to Egyptian hieroglyphs. The UFO returned on another night and was seen by more witnesses, including the Deputy Base Commander, Lieutenant Colonel Charles Halt. At one point the UFO illuminated the spot where Halt and his team were standing and at another time the UFO was directly over Woodbridge, firing beams of light down at the base. Subsequently, radiation readings were taken at the location where the UFO had been seen on the first night. They peaked in three indentations found where the craft had apparently landed. The MoD’s Defence Intelligence Staff assessed that the radiation levels were significantly higher than background levels. Subsequently it emerged that a radar operator at RAF Watton had tracked an object briefly, over the base. I re-opened the investigation into this case but was unable to determine what happened. It remains unexplained.
HORN: On 1 November 2006, you were involved with a Channel Five documentary, The British UFO Mystery. The programme focused on a wave of UFO sightings that occurred on 30 and 31 March 1993—The Cosford Incident—where many of the witnesses were police officers and military personnel. What did you conclude about this case?
POPE: We had a wave of UFO sightings over the UK for a period of about six hours. Many of the witnesses included police officers and military personnel. At one point the UFO flew over RAF Cosford and RAF Shawbury. Witnesses described a vast triangular-shaped craft capable of moving from a virtual hover to speeds of well over a thousand miles an hour in seconds. I led the investigation at the time and even my Head of Division, who was extremely sceptical about UFOs, was intrigued by this case. We even briefed the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, one of the UK’s most senior RAF officers. Channel Five’s recent investigative documentary exposed the case to over a million viewers on primetime terrestrial TV and led to over 30 new witnesses coming forward. The production company had obtained the MoD case file on the incident (which ran to over 100 pages of documentation) under the Freedom of Information Act and asked me to front the programme, talking viewers through the case and the MoD investigation. As a result of the interest generated by the programme, the MoD made the file available on its website. The file includes my sceptical Head of Division’s briefing to the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, which states “In summary, there would seem to be some evidence on this occasion that an unidentified object (or objects) of unknown origin was operating over the UK”. This is as close as the MoD will ever get to saying that there’s more to UFOs than misidentifications or hoaxes.
HORN: What were some of the other interesting UFO cases you investigated?
POPE: It’s difficult to single out interesting cases unless they’re on the scale of something like Rendlesham Forest or the Cosford Incident. Also, it’s difficult for me to talk about cases the MoD hasn’t yet released. I can’t anticipate what the Department will release and what they may withhold, so you’ll have to await the release of the files. But in general terms I can say that other interesting cases included some radar/visual cases, cases where UFOs were seen close to military bases, and some interesting sightings by civil and military pilots—including a few near-misses, where collisions were only narrowly avoided. Both the MoD and our Civil Aviation Authority has information on several such cases, and whatever one’s beliefs about UFOs, the flight safety implications should be of concern to everyone. When the MoD released Project Condign (a highly classified study that had its roots in discussions I had with the Defence Intelligence Staff in 1993) some of the most interesting recommendations related to this point. One read “No attempt should be made to out-manoeuvre a UAP during interception”. Another recommendation states “At higher altitudes, although UAP appear to be benign to civil air-traffic, pilots should be advised not to manoeuvre, other than to place the object astern, if possible”. UAP was the abbreviated form of Unidentified Aerial Phenomena, a term we decided to use instead of UFO, as it sounded more scientific.
HORN: Why did you leave the MoD’s UFO department?
POPE: After having done the job for 3 years I was promoted and moved to another post at a higher grade. There’s certainly no truth to the rumour that I was moved because I was getting too close to the truth, as some conspiracy theorists allege. After I left, I took up a financial policy post, before moving to a security-related job.
HORN: I once asked Stanton Friedman a similar question I’d like to ask you. How do you respond to allegations that you’re involved in a cover-up or that you’re a disinformation agent?
POPE: How can I respond? You can’t prove a negative. The rumour isn’t true, but if people believe this sort of thing they won’t believe my denial, or the MoD’s confirmation of my departure. I can’t win. It does amaze me though, how many people genuinely seem to believe this. I get asked it a lot and see the theory discussed frequently on various websites and discussion lists. The bottom line is that I worked for the Government for 21 years, for the very people who many conspiracy theorists believe are covering up the truth about UFOs. To them, the government are the bad guys, so I’m the bad guy, who’s part of the conspiracy.
HORN: Your investigations ultimately led to other unexplained phenomena. What do you make of so-called alien abductions?
POPE: While none of these other subjects were in the UFO project’s terms of reference, they inevitably ended up on my desk, because there was nowhere else to send them. I’ve probably looked into around 100 cases of alien abduction. Some of these cases were reported to me at the MoD, but most people contacted me after I’d written a book on the subject, called The Uninvited. Some sceptics say these people are attention seekers after their 15 minutes of fame, but this clearly isn’t true. Out of the hundred or so abductees I’ve been involved with, maybe half a dozen are interested in engaging with the media or the UFO community. Most aren’t interested. Other people suggest these people are delusional, but again, this theory doesn’t stand up to scrutiny. The few scientists who have looked at this phenomenon have found no signs of psychopathology in the abductees, and [have seen] evidence (in terms of increased heartrate and perspiration) that they genuinely believe they’ve had these experiences. The use of regression hypnosis in some of these cases clouds the issue. The scientific community generally doesn’t accept the validity of the technique in recovering suppressed memories, and indeed many believe it can distort memories or even create false ones. But regression hypnosis isn’t used in all abduction cases, so we can’t say False Memory Syndrome is the answer. Something’s going on with these people, but the truthful answer is that we don’t know what’s happening.
HORN: Could it be something we call “ghosts”?
POPE: People associate ghosts with old houses, churches or pubs, but in my experience there are just as many reports of ghosts on military bases as anywhere else. I’ve received numerous such reports, often from the MoD Police officers or guards who have to patrol these areas at night. Now, these are pretty tough guys, as you can imagine, but some of them have been really spooked by what they’ve seen. All the classic signs are present in many of these cases: unexplained cold spots [and] guard dogs growling, with their hackles rising, at certain locations. And actual ghosts [have been] seen at sites where people have been killed. Ghosts have even been seen in MoD Main Building itself, where the modern headquarters is built on the site of the much older Whitehall Palace. The remains of Henry VIII’s wine cellar are perfectly preserved in the basement, and there are some areas of the building where guards don’t like to patrol alone at night. Perhaps the oddest report I received was an animal ghost story. During the Second World War, Wing Commander Guy Gibson (who led the famous Damn Busters raid) had a dog that was knocked down by a car and killed, shortly before the raid. The ghost of this dog has been seen several times at RAF Scampton.
HORN: You’ve written extensively about your work with MoD. Is this not a problem since you signed the Official Secrets Act?
POPE: I signed the Official Secrets Act on my first day in the MoD and even though I’ve left, it binds me for life. But it doesn’t preclude writing or speaking about my work. Politicians invariably keep diaries and write memoirs, and military officers often write accounts of their careers. There’s no bar on this sort of activity, provided you follow various rules and procedures, the most obvious one being the absolute prohibition on revealing any classified information.
ARTICLE CONTINUES BELOW VIDEO
OVER 10 YEARS IN THE MAKING! DOCUMENTARY FEATURES PENTAGON INSIDERS, SCIENTISTS, THEOLOGY EXPERTS ON UFOS AND THE COMING GREAT DELUSION (COMING IN AUGUST)
After the initial interview with Nick above, he was in the news again with the latest batch of MoD UFO files released, and so we contacted him with follow-up questions:
HORN: Nick, a few days ago, you called the latest batch of MoD UFO files “absolutely fascinating.” Why did you choose to describe them in this way?
POPE: I worked on these files and have been involved in the ongoing program to declassify them and release them to the National Archives, so the media inevitably come to me for a quote when each new batch of files is released. Sometimes they’ll want an in-depth interview and on other occasions, just a soundbite. The “absolutely fascinating” quote was a quick soundbite.… That said, I think it’s a fair comment—who wouldn’t be fascinated by having the chance to peek into what I have called the real-life X-Files.…including sightings from police officers, pilots and military personnel, and cases where visual sightings were backed up by radar evidence, or by photos and videos that MoD’s imagery experts assessed as genuine.
HORN: File DEFE 24/1987/1 is a MoD 1998 briefing for Tony Blair after you wrote to the prime minister and urged him to make all UK UFO reports available to the public. What can you tell us about this?
POPE: I can’t remember the exact sequence of events here, but I’d been warning MoD for some time that UFOs would be a major issue once the UK’s Freedom of Information Act came fully into force. With that in mind, I’d certainly proposed that proactively releasing the files would be a way of defusing the situation and avoiding the inevitable workload that dealing with hundreds of UFO-related FOI requests on a case by case basis would generate. I didn’t discuss this with Tony Blair personally, but with one of the Defence Ministers at MoD and with a Member of Parliament. Clearly this was relayed to Blair. The decision to release the files was made in 2007 and I was briefed on this by MoD (I’d left in 2006, but spoke to them regularly in my capacity as a broadcaster and journalist) and I broke the story in the media (in The Daily Telegraph). The interesting postscript to this is that Tony Blair now says that the Freedom of Information Act was the biggest mistake of his political career!
HORN: File DEFE 24/2090/1 discusses how some UFOs may be the result of atmospheric plasmas and that “Russia was interested in harnessing these plasmas for potential military use.” Is there anything you can add to this intriguing possibility?
POPE: This isn’t an area I can discuss in detail, but clearly we were (and still are) concerned about any Russian research that might result in their acquiring novel military capabilities and technologies. So we were interested in the Russian work on this, and in the phenomenon more generally. This isn’t going to be a popular statement with the New Age community (who would regard this mind-set as a militaristic and negative response to looking at UFOs and anomalous phenomena), but the question “can we weaponize that?” is a logical and obvious one when it comes to looking at things like exotic atmospheric plasmas.
HORN: In more recent years, you have also investigated so-called alien abduction cases including psychological orders, folklore, and demonology ascribed by some to the reported phenomenon. Have you considered that other-dimensional, spiritual, or occult forces could be at play in some of these cases?
POPE: I’ve considered these possibilities and certainly can’t rule them out [but I’m really] not sure what to make of alien abductions. It’s interesting that the few scientific experiments undertaken with abductees show no evidence of psychopathology or falsehood and suggest that in recalling their experiences they exhibit physiological reactions (e.g. increased heart rate and perspiration) not seen in control groups of non-abductees. Just as the UFO phenomenon has no single explanation, I believe there are various different explanations for the alien abduction phenomenon. Some cases will be hoaxes and some may be attributable to some form of hallucination or delusion. To this we can probably add vivid dreams, sleep paralysis, false memory syndrome and various other factors. However, this doesn’t explain all the cases and I suspect there’s some other factor at work here. But what that factor is, I don’t know.
HORN: Are you familiar with Nick Redfern’s book Final Events and the “Collins Elite”? If so, what do you make of it, if anything, and are you aware of any British government groups that reached similar conclusions, i.e., that “aliens” might be angels and/or demons?
POPE: I think the way I’d characterize it is this: elements in the British Establishment have always been interested in—and dabbled with—the occult. Such people are sometimes in government. Other times, their views can influence government policy. When such people or groups look at something like the UFO phenomenon, they often gravitate towards angelic/demonic theories, as a consequence of their pre-existing beliefs. None of this should be taken as implying this represents an official position, but I guess you could say that it’s semi-official, given the power and influence of the sorts of people involved.
(NOTE FROM TOM HORN: When I pressed Pope to explain just who among the “British establishment” might be involved in alien occultism, he answered, “Tom, I’m not going to go into specifics, as there are considerable sensitivities here, but for whatever reason, one finds such beliefs most strongly held in certain parts of the aristocracy and the intelligence community.” We follow the trail on this later in the series.)
UP NEXT: My Interview with Dr. Bruce Maccabee
[i] Dr. Michael S. Heiser, “Why Should Christians Care About Ufology?”ANOMALOS MAGAZINE, Premier Edition, June–July 2006 (Portland, OR: Thomas R. Horn), 30.
[ii] Zoe Catchpole, “Britain Has Alien War-Weapons, Says Former Government Advisor,” MSN News, October 12, 2012, http://news.uk.msn.com/exclusives/britain-has-alien-war-weapons-says-former-government-adviser.
[iv] Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Division of Intercourse and Education; Ishii, Kikujiro, Viscount, 1866–1945; Iyenaga, Toyokichi, 1862–1936; Clarke, Joseph Ignatius Constantine, 1846–1925, The Imperial Japanese mission, 1917 (Press of B.S. Adams), 1918, 105.
[vi] Nick Pope (headed the UFO department for twenty-one years at the British government’s Ministry of Defence), in discussion over personal email communication with the author, Thomas R. Horn, between 2011–2012.
[vii] Bruce Maccabee (American optical physicist formerly employed by the US Navy, and a leading ufologist), in discussion over personal email communication with the author, Thomas R. Horn, between 2011–2012.