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In 1991, a group of geologists were hunting for gold deposits in the Ural Mountains, which stretch from southern to northern Russia and create a natural border between Europe and Asia. These mountains are already linked to oddities such as incoming reports of “fireballs” and “cigar-shaped crafts” seen in the sky.[i] However, the most mind-boggling discovery there to date is what was found during the gold expedition six hundred miles north of Arkaim at the point where three rivers—Kozhim, Narada, and Balbanyu—overlap. More than thirty feet down, in a layer of soil that spans more than ten kilometers around and had been “untouched for hundreds of thousands or more years,”[ii] the geologists unearthed “a scattering of tiny metal coils and springs,” as reported on the History Channel.[iii]

The images (available in many places online) show a number of coils/springs curling up from a metal “cap” object, but most appear to be wound around a column (like a snake slithering up a tree trunk in a circular pattern) that shows sudden, gnarled breakage at its end. Most remarkable is their size: Though the largest coils measure in at around three centimeters wide, the smallest are a mere “1/10,000 of an inch (2.5 microns—for comparison, the average hair is about 100 microns wide).”[iv]

Collected samples were sent to the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg to be analyzed against known technology in an attempt to find out what they were made of and, perhaps, what they had been used for. The results showed the tiniest coils were made of a tough metal called tungsten (used for making tools and, in the aerospace industry, “to fabricate rocket-engine nozzle throats and leading-edge reentry surfaces”[v]), as well as copper. In addition, the rare metal molybdenum was detected in some samples. Tungsten does form naturally from Earth, but never in this shape or size: In nature, tungsten’s edges are ragged, with sharp protrusions jutting out in a way that’s similar to a natural crystal or rock formation, while these shockingly microscopic coils being studied resembled the man-made, larger tungsten coils we would expect to see at the center of a halogen lamp. As tungsten has the highest melting point of all metals, it would have to have been melted down to temperatures of at least 3,410 degrees Celsius or 6,170 degrees Fahrenheit, then reshaped by machine to produce a coil matching the nature of the one discovered in 1991 near the Ural Mountains.

It doesn’t take a genius to conclude that this discovery is not a natural formation of nature. In fact, the spirals were found to have “Golden Mean proportions,”[vi] a term referencing perfection in the aesthetic proportions of an object or formation, aligning with the Fibonacci sequence in mathematics (which simply means the spirals were mathematically perfect in the way they bent and curled from the center outward, like the pattern in nautilus shells).

As for their purpose, or how they were buried beneath many layers of soil believed to be hundreds of thousands of years old, no one has a clue…but we can compare what we know about them to our own modern equipment and machinery. The result is astounding: “ancient nanotechnology”—an oxymoron if I’ve ever heard one. A commentator from the History Channel’s coverage on these mini mysteries explained:

The only way we could make them, even now, is with machine guided technology. You could not do this by hand. What we’re seeing here is proof that someone had advanced technology sufficient to build the type of circuitry that we normally only see in semiconductors, computer chips, high technology equipment using metals that are not commonly known. So, these spirals are clear evidence that someone had a very advanced civilization right here on Earth.[vii]






The Epoch Times also reported the OOPArts discovery in an article titled “Ancient Nanostructures Found Out of Place and Time,” noting that these nanospirals were also sent to labs in Helsinki and Moscow: four studies in total (one location conducted two studies). Dr. Johannes Fiebag, a principal researcher on the project, passed away in 1999—just eight years after the findings—and unfortunately, the trail went cold with his death, rendering no further answer. What little we know is only supplemented by the fact that one leading theory has been ruled out: Some believed the nanospirals fell from the nearby rocket-launch site in Plesetsk, but in 1996, a report stated the spirals were buried too deep in ancient soil for the launch site to have been involved in their appearance.[viii] The report from the Central Scientific Research Department of Geology and Exploitation of Precious Metals in Moscow also acknowledged that the coils “are far too old to have come from modern manufacturing…[and] despite being thousands of years old, the components are of a technological origin.”[ix]

Though many Ancient Astronaut websites have reported on this discovery and heavily emphasize the geological stratus the coils were found in was dated to “more than 300,000 years old,” to be fair, the soil could be as young as only twenty thousand years old, according to the earlier, and less sensational, reports. So, rather than cling to the most impressive number, I will refrain and admit this ancient Russian nanotechnology might only predate Adam by about fourteen thousand to sixteen thousand years. And, rather than assume a UFO crashed in Russia, shattered on impact, and sent mini-coil debris flying across ten kilometers of soil, as some have, I will also admit I have no idea what any of this means…except that science has in its possession microscopic, mathematically perfect, machine-engineered, and unimaginably advanced technology that I believe was dated to between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:3.

One last thought before we move onto the next OOPArt: If it takes looking in a place as unassuming as the Ural Mountains and rivers of Russia—and if what we find could be so small that it would blend in with specks of dirt on the bottom of an explorer’s shoe—then how often do we walk over or past proof of pre-Adamic intelligence unaware?

It could be daily…and it could be all around us.

Coal, Cart Wheels, and Ruts

There is a long, vast historical relationship between OOPArts, coal, and coal mines. According to the World Coal Association, naturally occurring coal within Earth is extremely old:

Coal is a fossil fuel, formed from vegetation, which has been consolidated between other rock strata and altered by the combined effects of pressure and heat over millions of years to form coal seams. The energy we get from coal today comes from the energy that plants absorbed from the sun millions of years ago.[x]

This era is called the Carboniferous Age (or “Period”). We don’t have to blindly accept this dating as the last word in order to at least concede that coal mine discoveries are worth taking a closer look at; they are unique in the OOPArt world for being both abundant and encased in naturally formed materials believed to be exceptionally archaic, predating humanity’s relative skills and development by unfathomable stretches of time. Explorers have stumbled upon a great number of odd items buried with coal, including doorknobs, gears, jewelry, cooking and eating utensils, bells, tools and building supplies, figurines, religious artifacts, “human” bones, weapons, coins, writings (such as hieroglyphics), and stones or metals originating from locations far away. Of course, if millions of years ago mankind was, scientists say, still part ape and only barely learning to scratch an itch, such artifacts are as “out of place” as any other OOPArt in question…and perhaps the most deserving of attention.

Though a small community of archeologists has observed the enigmatic link between coal and OOPArts and have postulated a few believable theories of their origin, their responses don’t even come close to accounting for all that’s been unearthed. By far, the majority of coal mine OOPArts are ignored by the scientific community, which appears to place all their resources into proving Earth is old and people came from monkeys. It’s ironic at least—and infuriating for the curious. (Though, in defense of the archeologists: Some fringe communities are quick to point out that every single one of the coal-related OOPArts is ancient when there have, at times, been other explanations. This has no doubt provoked experts to believe their skills would be more appropriately channeled elsewhere.)

Wheels have been found fossilized on several occasions, and despite demands that they be analyzed, either archeologists have refused (likely related to the forbidden archeology effect discussed earlier), or access to the artifacts has been prohibited. The latter is the case for a once-wooden, now-fossilized cart wheel found embedded in the ceiling of a coal mine in Donetsk, Ukraine, in 2008. (Unlike some coal mine OOPArts, photos of this relic show that: a) the wheel is still completely surrounded by the mine’s naturally occurring materials [it hasn’t been excavated and messed with by modern hands]; and b) there is no way to deny it’s exactly what it appears to be [in other words, it’s not, say, a vague “bump” interpreted as a wheel by OOPArt hopefuls or conspiracists].) Because the Donetsk coal mine was closed in 2009 and today sits flooded in water, gaining access to the wheel for further study isn’t expected to occur until someone in archeology circles with a lot of cash and a great reputation deems it necessary.

But, in 2008, coal mine explorers attempted to dislodge the wheel from the ceiling. They whittled away with pickaxes and hammers for some time until it became clear that their efforts were futile; expert extraction was needed, lest it be damaged and rendered irrelevant. When the mine owner and project director opted for the men to stop their whittling to forge ahead and clear the rest of the tunnel, they settled for photos of the artifact,[xi] which is still there to this day, resting in its ceiling grave as a nod to a mysterious pastime when man—or someone/something else—traveled that area of our planet on a cart with wheels roughly three feet wide.

Without lab analysis, one might argue that the stratum the wheel was found in has not been, and cannot be, responsibly dated. However, the Rostov region around the city of Donetsk is sitting atop Carboniferous Period rock scientists have agreed is around three hundred million years old, and the coal mine is a part of that territory’s deep, underground features. If the wheel isn’t that old—and I honestly don’t know—then how did it come to be lodged there? One possible explanation is that it was lost off a cart during the Carboniferous era, when it merged with the sediment layer through lithification and becoming fossilized, which appears to be its current state. That would date the wheel to about three hundred million years old. Another, less popular theory is that wood doesn’t actually take hundreds of millions of years to petrify, and this wheel is young. Scientists have been performing studies on wood in recent years that show the process can be much faster, depending on environmental circumstances. But even if that were the case, we still don’t know how a wheel got buried so deep in the middle of a Carboniferous rock region that it would eventually appear on the ceiling of a subterranean coal mine. Had it been haphazardly dropped by a roaming explorer of the recent past, it would have been on the floor.

The curious public will continue to apply the only logic it knows: If a fossil is wholly encased in coal or the mines that produce that coal, it’s as old as the age of the coal it’s buried in. Is the dating of the Carboniferous rock strata wrong? Or are the OOPArts really ancient? Or does, perhaps, another explanation just happen to keep applying to one coal OOPArt after another, after another? I find the concept of a three-hundred-million-year-old wheel hard to accept, so I’m still a little skeptical. But those pictures are really strange…and there’s no answer for its age otherwise.

Backpacking onto the subject of the mysterious wheel of Donetsk are the cart ruts dug into the soil—now petrified stone—in many places all over Earth that likewise cannot be explained, supporting the theory that someone or something was, in fact, traveling about the “void” in these primitive “vehicles.” Thankfully, unlike the wheel and other coal-related OOPArts, the ruts have stirred up quite a number of responses from the archeological world.

From the Journal of Archeological Science, we see this attention regularly. As one example, in an article titled “The Morphological Variability of Maltese ‘Cart Ruts’ and its Implications,” involving considerable peer review upon some of those ruts that sprung up intermittently throughout Malta, we read:

Diverse views have been expressed on how and when the cart ruts formed, with implications for elucidating the archaeology and geomorphology of the Maltese islands. While there have been occasional suggestions that some ruts may be natural geological features (e.g. Dawkins, 1918, Sagona, 2004), the overwhelming view has been that cart ruts are the result of anthropogenic activity. The estimated age range for the ruts has included Neolithic (e.g. Zammit, 1928, Sagona, 2015, McLaughlin et al., 2018) [these names and years are references to former archeological studies linked in the journal article; I’ve left them in so the reader can see the vast number of studies conducted on these ruts]…

In general, the ruts have been seen as being created by vehicles, be it wheeled carts (e.g. Fenton, 1918, Weston, 2010) or other forms such as “slide cars” (e.g. Gracie, 1954, Evans, 1971). Functional interpretations have ranged from moving soil uphill to create terraced fields (e.g. Zammit, 1928, Parker and Rubenstein, 1984), the transport of quarried stone (e.g. Abela, 1647, Bonanno, 1994, Bonanno, 2007, Bonanno, 2017), and the movement of general agricultural produce (e.g. Trump, 2002).… Finally, Arnaiz-Villeina et al. (2018) suggest some ruts may have had an “astronomical/religious purpose” and were deliberately aligned as a calendar to mark things like solstices. The dominant narrative, however, sees the cart ruts as being created by, and perhaps for, vehicular transport.[xii]

I would like to draw specific attention to one note in the article: “The estimated age range for the ruts has included Neolithic.” This range begins in 12,000 BC and only ends in approximately 4,500 BC, according to most sources. This assessment, if correct, places these Neolithic-aged cart ruts on Earth anywhere between eight thousand and five hundred years before Adam. One thing is certain: Despite the infrequent “natural formation” argument (which this article openly refers to as “occasional suggestions” and “less common views”[xiii]), anyone can look at the photos of these ruts, with their sharp and precise edges veering in a smooth curve around mountains and rocks, and conclude that Earth didn’t cough that phenomenon up by itself. The ruts are either man-made (indicating that the dating is off), or they’re something-else-made (thus, are fingerprints of the inhabitants of Earth during the “void”).

Similar cart ruts have been documented at various locations around the world, most notably in Malta, Kazakhstan, Italy, Spain, France, Ukraine, and even here in the United States.

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[i] “Ancient Nanostructures (Season 11): History,” YouTube video, uploaded by HISTORY on March 4, 2019, last accessed April 27, 2023,; 0:32–0:37.

[ii] Ibid., 1:15–1:20.

[iii] Ibid., 1:04–1:12.

[iv] Daniel, Samuel, “Ancient Nanostructures Found in the Mountains of Russia Raise Questions about Humanity’s Level of Development,” Jun 13, 2022, Science Info, last accessed April 28, 2023,

[v] “tungsten,” Encyclopaedia Britannica, last accessed April 28, 2023,

[vi] Vintini, Leonardo, “Ancient Nanostructures Found Out of Place and Time,” November 6, 2014, Epoch Times, last accessed April 28, 2023,

[vii] “Ancient Nanostructures…”; 2:32–3:12.

[viii] Ibid.

[ix] Ibid.

[x] “What Is Coal & Where Is it Found?” World Coal Association, last accessed April 29, 2023,

[xi] This is the official story floated over and over again online. One can easily locate the images, and this story, by Googling “Donetsk coalmine wheel.” As explained, there has been no official research or analysis of this OOPArt (and many others). This is the reason why I handled the wheel of Donetsk briefly.

[xii] Groucutt, Huw S., “The Morphological Variability of Maltese ‘Cart Ruts’ and its Implications,” Journal of Archeological Science: Reports: Volume 41, February 2022, 103287. Including contributions from: Extreme Events Research Group, Max Planck Institutes for Chemical Ecology, The Science of Human History, and Biogeochemistry, Jena 07745, Germany, Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany, Institute of Prehistoric Archaeology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. Received August 7, 2021; revised November 24, 2021; accepted November 25, 2021; available online December 7, 2021; Version of Record December 7, 2021. Last accessed April 29, 2023, Quoting from this scientific article is open-access, “distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.” As such, I am “not required to obtain permission to reuse this article,” according to the statement at the following related link:

[xiii] Ibid.

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