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A hundred thousand years ago, archeologists say, early Homo sapiens stumbled upon a cave on the South African coast and ground iron-rich dirt in abalone shells to form red paint. The cave was later abandoned and the painting tools were left behind. This is, as one Live Science article states, “the oldest evidence of humans making a complex compound, and even the oldest evidence of humans using containers.”[i] The next container-related artifact of human civilization wouldn’t be made for another forty thousand years, as far as we know.

The paint recipe—which may also have been some kind of prehistoric glue used for binding together bone or stone tool pieces—included ochre clay and charcoal. Except for the fact that “humans” cave painting or making glue a hundred thousand years ago is unbelievable, this find doesn’t initially appear that exciting. But when chemistry comes into the picture, archeologists are baffled. One of the binding agents in this ancient formula was crushed bones, heated to the point that the bone marrow released its oils. Sand and chips of quartzite stone were blended in, and either water or urine was added to increase the spreadability of the pigment.[ii]

Astonishingly, this recipe is nearly identical to the ones used in painting methods in Egypt circa 1000 BC, leading researchers behind this discovery—such as archeologist Christopher Henshilwood of the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg—to note that these primitive cave dwellers had at least “an elementary knowledge of chemistry.”[iii]

Maybe you readers can explain how hunter-gatherers of this Paleolithic period—whose lifestyle involved squatting in caves and banging on stuff with bones and rocks—could develop extraordinary, successful chemical compounds approximately ninety-seven thousand years before the progressive Egyptians did…but I don’t even have the beginning of a theory.

Neither do archeologists.

Puerta de Hayu Marca (“Gate of the Gods”)

Just off the shores of Lake Titicaca, Peru, in a region known by the Peruvian Indians as “The City of the Gods,” measuring in a perfect, twenty-three-foot square, is the Puerta de Haya Marca (the “Gate of the Gods”). A second name for this artifact/site is the “Doorway of the Serpent.” There are a number of theories regarding the origin of this secondary name, from those indicating it refers to the shape of the entire rock (which can appear from aerial shots as a reptile slithering up through the soil) to those recalling that the early Catholics designated it as a doorway to evil (thus, “serpent,” for its connections to Lucifer/Satan). And the Catholics have a good reason to deem it an evil place…

The “gate” is a strange square stamp embedded into the side of a naturally flat rock formation on the border of Bolivia. Inside the square, at the bottom center, is another recessed impression within the rock (standing around six feet high), which, from a distance, resembles a kind of keyhole. Upon closer inspection, the “keyhole” appears to be more the size of a door, and in its very center is a small, circular dent/depression in the back wall.

Local legend says the Amaru Meru (alternatively “Amaru Muru”), the Incan priest of the Temple of the Seven Rays, ran into the mountains to flee the Spanish Conquistadors who had come to rob and plunder the Incan tribes. With him, he carried a small disc, the “Key of the Gods of the Seven Rays,” which had been dropped from the heavens and kept sacred by the priest. Once he reached a safe distance from the temple, the Amaru Meru conducted a ritual with his fellow priests, using the small disc to open a portal within the flat rock, through which he disappeared. Some versions of this tale claim the Amaru Meru was fleeing alongside several other priests of the Temple of the Seven Rays. Others say he fled alone, discovering the doorway while in hiding, and happened upon shamans guarding the doorway, who thereafter agreed to perform a portal ritual with him when they saw the object he held. Either way, both versions suggest the doorway was a giant image carved into the mountains well before the priest fled the temple. This event, the legend says, turned the solid rock into a stargate. According to local lore, this priest was the first of other “kings” who came to earth from heavenly locations specifically associated with the constellations Pleiades and Orion.

But if the Incans say the door was already there, then who carved it? And how long ago?

Other folklore offered by the Native Indians says the site is a gateway to the lands of the gods through which, in their ancient past, great heroes arrived and then departed with a key that could open the mysterious doorway. In some adaptations, these earlier men had left this world to begin life anew amidst other interdimensional heroes, occasionally returning to check up on their former kingdom.

But again, the doorway was already there…

Nobody knows who crafted this door-shaped marvel, or when. Theories abound as to its origin, and for as many archeologists who claim the site is merely an abandoned building project by the Incas, just as many believe the site predates Incan occupancy—and some can explain in rigorous detail how and why the doorway carving is not typical of Incan design. That’s an important fact that means this doorway may be very old, perhaps even pre-Adamic.

Because this area is considered an ancient archeological site, and because it is protected by the Peruvian government, further excavations and dating potentially revealing its secrets and origin have not been possible. However, as of this writing, similar to the Gobekli Tepe site we will briefly discuss, there has never been any evidence of a settlement nearby that would link the Puerta de Hayu Marca to its potential builders, pre-Adamic or otherwise. This finding is literally just a door with a keyhole carved into flat-faced rock, out in the middle of nowhere, and linked to an amalgamation of stories that all spring from an ancient religion.

Oh yeah, and there’s a serpent.






To this day, many report that light can often still be observed behind, or emanating through, the disc-shaped dent within the Gate of the Gods. Many of the local residents, even today, are said to have refused to go anywhere near it. Others, like those who specifically seek out paranormal pilgrimage sites, travel great distances to lay hands on the back wall or inside frame of the small door, where they report feeling energy emanating from the stone upon contact. These visitors have additionally claimed to see visions of stars on occasion, as well as hear the sounds of unusual rhythmic music.

More sensational accounts (like one I watched online by a long-haired American man) involve a spiritual seeker’s disappearance for several minutes and, upon the person’s return, a testimony of full-blown conversations with non-earthly beings or spirits. It is said that a great secret of unlocking the door to this portal or stargate is known among an esoteric few whose consciousness is more “open” than most: Humming or singing certain notes and tones in a specific order will bring the silica in the stone to a particular mystical vibration, awaken the energy in the wall, and transport the seeker to an internal room within the edifice where the seeker can communicate with various entities of extreme intelligence, the identity of which varies according to the testimony: aliens, long-deceased Incan ancestors, the carvers of the doorway, different gods, and so on. (Don’t forget that Lucifer is thought to have been a worship leader. The prophets’ words regarding his role in Heaven suggest that he had great authority over music. It’s quite interesting to see that a potentially Luciferian artifact—that also happens to be a “doorway” related to a “serpent”—is unlocked or opened through a perverse musical performance by spiritual seekers… It’s almost akin to a “worship song” dedicated to a satanic ruler over a location of Earth from the “void” era.) Most peculiar are the reports involving friends, family members, or casual onlookers who swear to have witnessed the person at the door glow or shimmer, then disappear, returning minutes later with quite fantastic tales of where they had been and what they had seen while they were away.

Though none of these contemporary stories of stargate travel can be substantiated, so many statements over the years have been shared that it’s similar to how alien abduction is treated in conversations about paranormal activity: One has to either assume that: a) All of these folks are hallucinating, are on drugs at the time of their experience, or are making the stories up for attention; or b) something otherworldly takes place when an “open-minded” seeker approaches the portal. (My opinion is quite conservative: I believe most people are high on something at the time of the attempt, as some have openly admitted to having smoked marijuana or taken another mind-altering substance, and they are intentionally looking for a spiritual encounter, so they’ll find what they’re seeking while they’re already mentally inebriated. In those rare instances when a person has legitimately experienced something mystical, whatever/whoever it is they’re connecting with is not of God; therefore, their encounters only show that demonic activity is still active in the modern era, and deception is alive and well beyond the biblically forbidden gateways into the unseen realm [as if there was any question of that…]. If Satan can disguise himself as an angel of light [which he can and does; see 2 Corinthians 11:14], then these entities aren’t going to be dumb enough to say, “Hey, brother! Welcome to the other side of the portal. We’re demons. Run for your life.” They’ll appear friendly, supremely intelligent, and enlightened in some form of esoteric knowledge or technology unknown to mankind, etc.)

Because of the Peruvian government’s protection of this gate and the surrounding territory, we may never know just how old this location is, who carved it (though it wasn’t likely the Incans, because their legends say the doorway was already there, and archeologists confirm the style predates them), or whether some aspect of the doorway involves ancient technology that would explain the site’s unearthly episodes. As such, it wouldn’t typically qualify as an OOPArt (we don’t know if it’s out of place or in any way technological).

The reason this “Doorway of the Serpent” is mentioned briefly here is because, apart from potentially dating to the pre-Adamic age, it may be yet another link to the goings-on upon Earth during the serpentine “void” era, as the following chapters will show.

Stone Forest of Markawasi

The mysterious Gate of the Gods discussed in the previous section is near the Stone Forest of the Markawasi (or Marcahuasi) plateau in the Andes Mountains. The Stone Forest is home to a wealth of oddities, including gigantic stones that strongly resemble human faces and heads (as well as many animals), many of which could easily be interpreted to represent various ancient world cultures.

One sculpture mirrors many features and contours of the “face on Mars.” Another, the “Monument to Humanity,” is so named for the “four distinct races of humanity which can be found on this 85-foot-high monument.”[iv] It is especially fascinating that the images of the faces of four races of people might be sculpted from the same rock so near the Gate of the Gods that legendarily became the portal for ancient heroes who had access to seeing whatever races of humanity they wished—all at once. There don’t seem to be many theories to explain how an ancient civilization would be so familiar with faraway races, or why that civilization would consider those foreign races important enough to memorialize in giant stones—all within the same time frame and location.

The human “faces” appearing in the Stone Forest could have originated naturally as a result of weathering over many years. However, anthropologists thus far can’t account for how there appears to be such a significant cluster of them; one or two faces appearing to jut from a cliff in a mountainous region isn’t necessarily any more sensational than recognizable shapes appearing in the formations of clouds, but toss a few more “faces”—on the same rocky canvas—and the likeliness of natural causes dwindles.

Could it be that the entities behind the wall of the Puerta de Hayu Marca, who have historically responded to the “open mind” of spiritual-experience seekers, also “visit” the ancients at this nearby location? Or, had the Stone Forest visitors already been to the serpent doorway, and then came here to carve something they were told to? If so, did the voices behind the wall tell the wanderers about the heroes whose faces are depicted in the monument?

Was this fascinating cluster of stones naturally sculpted by millions of years of weathering? Or are the images of “faces” coincidence? At present, we simply don’t know.

Tiahuanaco and the Gate of the Sun

The archway of Tiahuanaco (or Tiwanaku) near La Paz, Bolivia, is a puzzling discovery on many counts. To begin, this arch—placed in what appears to be a worship temple courtyard a stone’s throw from palace ruins and a short jaunt to the nearby Acapana Pyramid—raises the same questions as the upcoming Baalbek and Gobekli Tepe sites regarding its megalithic size and expert composition. The gate is 9.8 feet tall, 13 feet wide, and weighs approximately 10 tons (20,000 pounds).

Though the gate was found in the early 1900s resting on its side and having been split into two at some point in history, it was originally constructed from a single, enormous stone. The gate’s age varies greatly, depending on the source. Though some postulate that the Gate of the Sun was designed by Tiahuanacans as late as the first century AD, many other sources date the stone to around 12,000 BC,[v] in part due to the this structure’s similarities to other strange archeoastronomical findings. (Archeoastronomy is the study of how the ancients understood the sky and space bodies.) All over the world, antediluvian (pre-Flood) structures have been found that are positioned in precise alignment with the stars, planets, and constellations; most feature carvings of symbols outlining what could be cultural beliefs regarding mystical, spiritual events that occurred at different times of the year in relation to sunrises, sunsets, and other manifestations of the relationship between Earth and sky. (You may recall that archeologists believed the lithified cart ruts were potentially linked to an “‘astronomical/religious purpose’ and were deliberately aligned as a calendar to mark things like solstices.”[vi] This would be one example similar to this Gate of the Sun.) Various features in and around Tiahuanaco show parallel alignment.

But the mysteries yet to be unlocked by the experts involve more than just the answer to a “when” question, possibly qualifying the Gate of the Sun as an OOPArt due to the out-of-place (and time) knowledge these ancients illustrate.

At almost thirteen thousand feet in elevation, the land is deprived of the level of oxygen needed for long-term human occupancy. The human body, when exposed to altitudes this high for more than a few days, is known to suffer all sorts of health concerns, some of which can be fatal (pulmonary or cerebral edema). Yet the ruins of Tiahuanaco heavily suggest that a population remained there for at least half a century. How did they survive that long?

The iconic Gate of the Sun piece is not by any stretch the largest stone moved at the apparently inhospitable site, a location known for housing two-hundred-ton monoliths (twenty times the size of the large gate) in the structures some ten miles away from the quarry.

These ruins, too, are unique in their cutting-edge geometric design, which could only be accomplished with techniques that involve expert drilling, the flawless, interlocking placement of modular blocks, the development of early “staples” holding walls together, and other high-level practices only acquired within the last hundred years by modern-day builders. It’s a mystery how the stones, and the symbols they display, were cut, tooled, and carved. Even more puzzling is how rocks weighing hundreds of thousands of pounds were transported ten miles across awkward terrain and bodies of water…by a likely hyperventilating community of ancient Andeans whose most impressive method of transportation were tiny river canoes made of reeds.

Unlike some of the other sites up we’ve looked at, there ample evidence at this one of settlement, resources, intelligence, and planning. That all makes the question of “who” even more interesting, when we consider what this early population knew of the stars. Whereas we might wonder how Neolithic, nomadic, wandering wheat-plowers could possibly comprehend the Gobekli Tepe structures we’ll discuss later in this chapter, at the Tiahuanaco site we find ourselves asking how a race of humans that proves to be in some ways more intelligent than we are today could possibly have lived as long ago as they did—whether in the first century AD or, as the archeologists from the 1940s who link the site to astrological anomalies estimate, ten thousand to sixteen thousand years before Christ (yes, you read that correctly: archeologists at one point dated this site to 10000–16000 BC). Although archeologists and historians agree this settlement was built by Tiahuanacans, there is no easy explanation for what kind of people—or race—they were, exactly. Set apart from other ancient civilizations as a result of their advanced intelligence, it is no surprise that many individuals label them as some pre-Adamic race we can’t know anything about. In fact, proponents of the Ancient Astronaut theories view Tiahuanaco as a possible extraterrestrial habitation because, as illustrated by the Gate of the Sun and surrounding artifacts, the Tiahuanacans had an extraordinary comprehension of space and mathematics.

And what’s up with these ancient cultures and their gates, doors, and keyholes? Is it possible that there’s actually something to this? Just perhaps, did some serpentine hero of old spring up to all these early sites and communicate to the folks there what they needed for their religion and communication with the divine? Or, if not, is there any explanation for the obsession the ancients had with serpents and the gateways/stargates that led to communication with them? Why do documents and pictographs originate from all over the planet that attest to a very old form of snake worship? And why were these cultures so far advanced?

In 1956, researchers Hans Schindler Bellamy and Peter Allan teamed up to compile an investigative book on this site, titled, The Calendar of Tiahuanaco: A Disquisition on the Time Measuring System of the Oldest Civilization in the World. As the title suggests, Bellamy and Allan viewed the Gate of the Sun and other “documents” at the site as an early calendar. Though the time measurements recorded don’t match the modern, Gregorian concept of days, weeks, months, or seasons, leading some today to write off the carvings as abstract art, a deeper look reveals an articulate and meticulous understanding of what the heavens may have looked like long ago. Throughout this four-hundred-plus-page report of the site, the authors repeatedly demonstrate the Tiahuanacans’ knowledge of: a spherical Earth (not the “flat Earth” most ancient cultures conceptualized!); details involving astrological phenomena in relation to equinoxes and solstices; the latitudinal position of the civilization as it would have appeared on a GPS system at the time (approximately 10 degrees); the obliquity of the ecliptic (aka, the axial tilt: the alignments and angles between Earth’s rotational axis and its orbital axis); and complex mathematics, including the correct ratio of pi (22/7), square roots, the degree angles (30, 60, 90) and their practical, trigonometrical uses in construction and astronomy—just to name a few—all documented in stone.[vii]

Because of the propensity of the conspiracy crowd to brand every fascinating object an OOPArt, I will refrain from selling the idea that this gate would qualify. However, it definitely appears that such extreme intelligence encoded within a stone archway slapped in the middle of Nowheresville, Bolivia, is an out-of-place object.

But despite the speechlessness that such irrefutable brainpower hidden away in the hills of the sun would cause, the yearning within human nature to solve the unsolvable inspires many to speculate about various building methods. Many experts on ancient architecture have attempted in the recent past to reconstruct the structures of Tiahuanaco to try to identify the astoundingly progressive methods used by these early inhabitants…an endeavor that has been to no avail. One article, written in 2000 by J. P. Protzen in the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, dedicates around fifteen long pages to reimagining ingenuity. Though the writer shared a diverse collection of ideas, many of which are far more plausible than earlier theories, he finds the Tiahuanacan structure is in “sharp contrast to…Incan architecture,”[viii] which places doubt on some archeologists’ conclusions that Tiahuanaco was just another Incan city dating to that era. In his conclusion, Protzen admits that “in spite of our findings to date, we are not even close to comprehending Tiwanaku [Tiahuanaco] in architecture.”[ix]

And, of course, there’s the bizarre “overnight” factor. Regardless of the methods used for building, there is no evidence that this culture had experimented on or near this locale for generations, starting with the construction of simple homes and gradually demonstrating increased architectural knowledge up to the level these ruins exhibit. It’s as if they knew by instinct exactly how to construct the building from their very first attempt; in other words, there’s no evidence of any evolutionary phases of skill levels.

Not surprisingly, the Tiahuanacans’ ability to survive and maintain food/plant resources—in a climate hostile to vegetation—has the world baffled. When the ancient settlement was finally discovered, it proved to be a cleverer feat than what many farming communities could organize today. Canals were dug into the soil at the correct depth in grids around the plants: When the sun bore down on the canals, the water would heat to the point that, after dark, the water would cool slowly overnight, dissipating heat in a steam or mist that wrapped the plants like a blanket. Thus, the surrounding air never dipped to the below-freezing temperatures that would have ravaged them. And, as if this strategy in and of itself wasn’t sophisticated enough, the canals also doubled as an irrigation system!

As a point of further intrigue, the site tells excellent stories and displays impressive religious imagery within its artwork. The deity at the center and top of the Gate of the Sun has been identified by some historians and archeologists as Viracocha, Incan god of the sun and storms. Upon his head is a crown made of sun rays, from his eyes fall tears of rain, and in each of his hands are tightly clasped thunderbolts. This god, according to legend, created the race of giants, among other accomplishments, such as: creating the sun, moon, stars, and all light of the universe; forming mankind by breathing life into stones; sending a flood to destroy the giant race that angered him; disguising himself as a beggar and educating his prized human race on the basics of civilizational development; and performing all sorts of miracles and wonders. (Some details of these stories are carved on the surface of the Gate of the Sun.) It’s not difficult to see how the tale of Viracocha plagiarizes characteristics first attributed to the God of Genesis.

It’s not hard to imagine that, if Tiahuanaco was home to a pre-Adamic race prior to the arrival of the Incans, the Incans may have subsequently embraced Viracochan legends and religion into their culture, adopting this god as their own. Might this have occurred because they stumbled onto an area exhibiting advanced building technology, exceptionally high levels of mathematical aptitude, keen resourcefulness in farming and irrigation practices, and an understanding of precise astronomical/astrological alignments between Tiahuanaco and the broad universe? Might the Incans, in their human imaginations, have attributed such dexterity to some transcendent race of gods, godlike people, or people who intermingled with the gods? Would the Incans scan the area upon arrival for signs of previous settlements and, after finding none, conclude that this godlike race came out of nowhere, overnight, with esoteric and mystical technologies that baffle the minds of regular, unexceptional humans?

Do we, today, look upon this peculiar site and maybe—just maybe—see signals in stone of a malicious and deceptive spirit who wanted to be viewed as, and worshiped like, the Almighty God of Genesis? If so, it would certainly make sense for this presence to prop himself up as Viracocha, the god with Jehovah-like attributes. But who could that presence have been? And if he wasn’t alone, who were the otherworldly builders who accompanied him?

Interesting guy, that Viracocha. Peruvian civilization shows long historical links between this god and serpentine iconography. In fact, in many cases, Viracocha’s actions and legends identify him by other names: Quetzalcoatl to the Aztecs and Kukulkan, Q’uq’umatz, and Tohil among various regions of Mayan lore. Each of these entities was, at one point in legend, a white, bearded man dressed in robes who ventured across the sea to give wisdom to the ancients. This entity, known by different names, was the Feathered Serpent, worshiped in early Mesoamerican religion, and, as Viracocha, he kept a condor snake as his pet. In some effigies, he is depicted as holding a snake in each hand.

While we’re on the subject of Tiahuanaco, let’s turn to another mystery nearby…

UP NEXT: Geoglyphs of Tiahuanaco

[i] Pappas, Stephanie, “Oldest Human Paint-Making Studio Discovered in Cave,” October 13, 2011, Live Science, last accessed May 1, 2023,

[ii] Ibid.

[iii] Ibid.

[iv] New documentary release announcement, “The Mysterious Stone Monuments of Markawasi, Peru,” as seen on “The Documentary Channel,” BBC Video, last accessed March 23, 2023,

[v] Though we can’t buy into every claim that floats around in fringe archeological circles, the Gate of the Sun is referenced as “14,000 years old” or “14000 BP” regularly. As examples: Dan Eden, “The Amazing Engineering Designs of Tiahuanaco: Gateway to the Gods,” ViewZone, last accessed March 23, 2023, (See the breakdown of the site-dating and its controversy under the heading “How old is this site?”) Further reading includes: Stone-Miller, Rebecca, Art of the Andes: From Chavin to Inca (Thames & Hudson, New York: 1996); Fagan, Brian M., The Seventy Great Mysteries of the Ancient World: Unlocking the Secrets of Past Civilizations (Thames & Hudson, New York: 2001).

[vi] Groucutt, Huw S., “The Morphological Variability of Maltese ‘Cart Ruts’…”

[vii] Bellamy, Hans Schindler and Peter Allan, The Calendar of Tiahuanaco: A Disquisition on the Time Measuring System of the Oldest Civilization in the World (London: Faber & Faber; 1956). There is no specific page number to point to for this information as these findings were repetitiously discussed throughout the entire 400-plus-page investigation.

[viii] Protzen, J. P., and S. E. Nair, 2000, “On Reconstructing Tiwanaku Architecture,” The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians: Volume 59 (September, 2000, no., 3), 370.

[ix] Ibid.

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