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David Flynn—author of best-sellers Cydonia and Temple at the Center of Time, two works that made waves a couple decades back for their astounding discoveries related to ancient cultures—contacted my co-author for Before Genesis, Dr. Thomas Horn, and together they wrote an article on February 24, 2008, called “Discovery of Vast, Prehistoric Works Built by Giants?: The Geoglyphs of Tiahuanaco.”

Dr. Horn gave David full credit for the discovery at that time, saying:

The size and scope of David Flynn’s Tiahuanaco discovery simply surpasses comprehension. Mammoth traces of intelligence carved in stone and covering hundreds of square miles. For those who understand what they are seeing here for the first time, this could indeed be the strongest evidence ever found of prehistoric engineering by those who were known and feared throughout the ancient world as gods.[i]

The rest of this section, until the next header (“Gobekli Tepe”), is, at Tom’s humble request for its inclusion in this book, Flynn’s original article in its entirety and as it first appeared (including his original citations). (Much of the relevant information involved in this article requires reading the image captions, so don’t skip those.)

This satellite image (above) is a portion of the Andean foothills surrounding Lake Titicaca in Bolivia, South America. It is a small sample of a vast network of patterns that surround the lake and extend for more than one hundred miles south into the Bolivian desert. The patterns display geometric repetition and intelligent design. There are interlocking rectangular cells and mounds, perfectly straight lines, and tree-like arrays that are uncharacteristic with natural erosion. These cover every topographical feature of the high plateau surrounding the lake and over flood plains, hills, cliffs, and mountains. Although these geoglyphs are remarkable in their obvious strangeness, what is more astounding is that they have remained in obscurity until now. In the same way modern archeologists recently found the ruins of hidden Mayan temples in the Guatemalan jungle by using earth-orbiting satellites, we have discovered what could be one of the greatest finds of our time.

Directly South of Lake Titicaca, the foothills are embossed with mound and rope arrangements of earth and rock. These form a contiguous “geomantic” and “circuit-like” network visible only from the air.

Perfectly straight lines and repeated sharp-angle turns such as pictured do not occur through natural erosion. One hundred and twenty miles south of Lake Titicaca, near Chata, Bolivia, lines and geometric shapes were set in the ground by removal of earth at different depths, leaving various colors of strata underneath exposed. The effect is like a Zen garden covering the entire desert.

Though geologists believe that Lake Titicaca has been receding for nearly thirteen thousand years, having been formed at the end of the last Ice Age, patterns of stripes are evident under the lake’s shoreline for a distance of at least nearly two miles before being obscured by the water’s depths. At first glance the stripes appear to be cultivation plots. However, they are extremely narrow in relation to their length…some five feet wide to several thousand feet long.

Twelve miles south of Lake Titicaca, located within the center of the array of geoglyphs, lies the megalithic ruins of Tiahuanaco. Known as the “American Stonehenge” or the “Baalbek of the New World,” its architecture exhibits technological skill that exceeds modern feats of building. At Tiahuanaco, immense stone works were joined with modular fittings and complex breach-locking levels that have never been seen in any other ancient culture. Many of the blocks were joined together with T-shaped metal clamps that were poured into place by a portable forge. According to engineers, one of the largest single stones ever to be moved and put into building anywhere on earth (about four hundred tons) was transported to Tiahuanaco from a quarry over two hundred miles away. This feat is more incredible when one realizes the route of transport was through a mountain range up to fifteen thousand feet.

Conventional historians assign the age of buildings of Tiahuanaco at around 600 BC, believing that a pre-Inca civilization, without benefit of the wheel, modern tools, or even a written language, constructed these architectural marvels.

The historian, Arthur Posnansky, studied the area for over fifty years and observed that sediment had been deposited over the site to the depth of six feet. Within this overburden, produced by a massive flood of water sometime around the Pleistocene age (thirteen thousand years ago) fossilized human skulls were unearthed together with seashells and remnants of tropical plants.[ii] The skulls have nearly three times the cranial capacity of modern man and are displayed in the La Paz museum in Bolivia.[iii]

An ancient shoreline was etched into the hills surrounding Tiahuanaco that had been lifted out of the horizontal plane. Additionally, there were lime deposits on the surface of the exposed megaliths, indicating that they had been submerged in water. Posnansky wrote:

The climate is dry, the foliage is scanty, the weather is cold, the neighboring people wretchedly poor and few in number. The top soil of the plateau is a two-foot dry deposit, now soft stone. Below it stands the lignite of charred tropical plants. Next come a layer of ash deposited amidst rainfall, and then appears an alluvial deposit. In such a place, one would normally expect merely a scanty soil, windswept, on rocky ground.[iv]

The geoglyphs in this area are found extant in all three layers of stratum, described by Posnansky, some of the most complex and ancient were carved into bedrock. In places, the rock was hewn into intricate mazes, rectilinear cells, mounds, and other geometry. These can be seen protruding from the valley floor of Ice Age sediment.

At the outskirts of the Bolivian village of Viacha, entire hills were excised in this manner. Other examples can be seen near the village of Batallas and Ancocahua, and on the foothills around Pucarani and Machacamarca. The geologically younger stratum around these patterns is easy to discern in satellite images.

Though remnants of ancient farming, known as suka kollus in the local Aymara language (artificially raised fields), can be seen among these geoglyphic features, these are found in the valleys and are easily distinguishable from the majority of glyph patterns around Lake Titicaca.

The raised farming fields (viewed above) are distinctly labyrinthine in design and, though extensive, constitute a small portion of the patterns that appear more “ritualistic” in design. However, because these features are so ancient and no longer used for farming due to the poor climate, they are termed “fossilized suka kollus” by archaeologists.

The horizontal terracing seen on many hills around the lake seem to have been designed to collect and hold rainwater to create additional farming land. However, the vertical features that are far more extensive on the Altiplano are composed of rock piles and, in some places, they are hewn into the bedrock itself. Vertical walls of earth and rock cannot have been built to hold water. Some areas exhibit rectangular cells, others, perfect circles.

The Inca civilization was relatively short-lived, lasting only one hundred years. Their culture inherited most its technology and legend from civilization stretching far into antiquity. It is known that the Inca and their predecessors possessed no written language. Instead, they used an arrangement of knotted ropes that communicated extremely complex information. This system, called quipus, was only understood by the highly trained Inca elite. The Spanish explorers recorded that the quipus was capable of recording not only census and crop records but lineage of kings and narratives of history. Examples of quipus from the pre-Inca cultures have recently been discovered in excavations in Peru dating to c. 3000 BC.[v] More significantly, the knotted and colored patterns of ropes that formed the quipus seems to be represented in stone among some of the more ancient geoglyphs on the Altiplano.

The similarities of the quipus type rock glyphs and examples of Inca quipus rope are compellingly similar. The monumental work required to carve these geoglyphs suggest the importance of the message they conveyed. It is also remarkable that the knotted configurations of quipus seem to have been carved into the bedrock of hills rising above sediment that was deposited over the bedrock itself. This suggests that the age of these features is in excess of many thousands of years.

As in the case of the Nazca lines of Peru, the Tiahuanaco geoglyphs represent hundreds of years in construction and communal effort of thousands. However, unlike Nazca that was constructed in low altitude, the more extensive Tiahuanaco geoglyphs lie in a region that cannot support a population capable of producing such vast works, existing on a plain twelve thousand five hundred feet above sea level and higher. Nevertheless, they saturate the countryside for hundreds of square miles, a fact that presents enormous architectural difficulties. Modern-day visitors to the region are advised to limit activity due to the danger of altitude sickness. In fact, hotels in La Paz actually provide supplementary oxygen for their guests.

When the first Spanish chroniclers arrived with the conquistador Pizaro, the Inca explained that Tiahuanaco had been constructed by a race of giants, called Huaris, before Chamak-pacha, the “period of darkness,” and was already in ruins before their civilization began. The giants had been created by Viracocha, the god who came from the heavens.

He [Viracocha] created animals and a race of giants. These beings enraged the Lord, and he turned them into stone. Then he flooded the earth till all was under water, and all life extinguished. This flood was called uñu pachacuti, by the Inca which means “water that overturns the land.” They say that it rained 60 days and nights, that it drowned all created things, and that there alone remained some vestiges of those who were turned into stones. Viracocha rose from the bosom of Lake Titicaca, and presided over the erection of those wondrous cities whose ruins still dot its islands and western shores, and whose history is totally lost in the night of time.[vi]

Less than a mile from Tiahuanaco, at a place named Puma Punko, immense stone ashlars, some in the two-hundred-ton range, were scattered and tossed like a child’s building blocks in an episode of unparalleled seismic violence. Posnansky believed that it was more ancient than Tiahuanaco, and modern researchers have suggested that both sites may have been built over previous cultures with antiquity stretching back tens of thousands of years.

Posnansky also suggested that the Kalasasaya temple of Tiahuanaco had been aligned with the angle that the sun and planets passed overhead. This “obliqueness of the ecliptic” at Kalasasaya indicated that nearly seventeen thousand years had passed since the Tiahuanaco had been constructed.[vii]

Modern claims of destroyed, lost civilizations of earth, underground cities, giants, and alien beings from the heavens are fertile subjects for ridicule. However, all these topics are found concentrated in the founding myths of the Inca and their predecessors.

The Peruvian historian Montesinos, in Memories Antiguas, Histories, Politicas del Peru wrote:

Cusco and the city of ruins, Tiwanaku are connected by a gigantic subterranean road. The Incas do not know who built it. They know nothing about the inhabitants of Tiwanaku. In their opinion it was built by a very ancient people who later on retreated into the jungle of the Amazon.

The Tiahuanaco researcher, H. S. Bellamy, believed that the Tiahuanacan civilization had been destroyed by a small moon that decayed in its orbit and crashed into the earth. His findings were based on the hieroglyphs of the gateway of the sun in the main temple of Tiahuanaco. Additionally, Bellamy wrote that the cataclysm was only one of a series produced by several captured moons. Tiahuanaco and Puma Punko were the last remaining edifices to cultures that existed in extreme antiquity…up to hundreds of thousands of years old.[viii]

This assertion seems to be verified in the extreme erosion of the geoglyphs in a margin around Lake Titicaca above fourteen thousand feet. At this altitude, the surface features show the effects of prolonged rain and wind. Below fourteen thousand feet, the geoglyphs remain much more intact due to being submerged in the post-glacial extent of Lake Titicaca…at its largest volume circa thirteen thousand years ago.

A further example of the Pleistocene age of the geoglyphs is seen below on a hill to the north of Lake Titicaca at a fourteen-thousand-foot margin. Near the center of the image is an alluvial fan, created by sediment-bearing runoff meeting standing water.

A close-up of the hill reveals the highly eroded shadows of the same geoglyphic features seen throughout the area.

The patterns carved in the bedrock (seen in the next image) were covered with Ice-Age sediment. Over time, wind and rain has removed the glacial deposits to reveal the geoglyphs underneath.

Inca civilization founding myths of giants and world deluge agree with similar legends from the Maya, Olmec, and Aztec cultures of Mexico. These are also consistent with Sumerian and Hebrew accounts of the Flood and of giants.

And when the sons of men had multiplied, in those days, beautiful and comely daughters were born to them: and the Watchers, the sons of heaven saw them and desired them. And they said to one another, “come let us choose for ourselves wives from the daughters of men, and let us beget for ourselves, children”… Then said the Most High, “go to Noah and tell him that a deluge is about to come upon the whole earth, to heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed.” (1 Enoch 6:1–7, 10)

The Greeks also believed that the giants were responsible for the creation of megalithic structures that have been discovered over the entire earth. Islamic folklore also describes the “building” activity of a race of super beings called the “Jinn”: “The Jinn were before Adam: They built huge cities whose ruins still stand in forgotten places” (Qur’an, Surah 89: 9–15, 27).

In Egypt, the Edfu temple texts, believed to predate the Egyptians themselves, explain: “The most ancient of earth’s temples and monuments were built to bring about the resurrection of the destroyed world of the gods.”

The impression that the Tiahuanaco geoglyphs leave is of both complexity and symbolism. Their extreme age and vastness conveys purpose beyond the realm of modern thought. If a creation of art, their purpose may have been to merge human culture with the processes of nature. However, within the Inca religious paradigm, the oldest record of the Andean region available to us, they are the vestiges of a lost civilization that knew its destiny…to be destroyed by world cataclysm. In this regard, the geoglyphs would serve not only as a memorial of an ancient existence, but also as a warning for future humanity of the return of a destructive epoch.

The geoglyphs seem to be physical evidence that support the Middle and South American myths of world deluge and giants. Their discovery in modern times fits Inca and Mayan prophecies of an “awakening” to knowledge of the ancient past, of the “builder gods” and of their return. It is perhaps testament to the accuracy of these prophecies that the date, December 21, 2012, is known so widely in modern times…the end of the Mayan calendar.

UP NEXT: Gobekli Tepe

[i] Horn, Thomas, as quoted in: Flynn, David, The David Flynn Collection (Crane, MO: Defender Publishing; 2012), 487.

[ii] Posnansky, Arthur, “Tiahuanacu” (New York: J.J. Augustin; 1946).

[iii] Childress, David Hatcher, “The Coneheads of Peru,” World Explorer Magazine (Kempton, Il: World Explorers Club, Vol. 3, No. 4).

[iv] Posnansky, Arthur, Tiahuanaco: The Cradle of American Man (4 vol.; New York: J. J. Augustin, 1958).


[vi] Acosta, Hint, of the New World, bk. y. chap. 4, bk. vi. chap. 19, Eri£. trans., 1701, “History of the Incas” by Pedro Sarmiento De Gamboa, translated by Clements Markham (Cambridge: The Hakluyt Society 1907), 28–58.

[vii] Posnansky, Arthur, Tiahuanaco: The Cradle of American Man.

[viii] C.f.: Bellamy, H. S., and P. Allan, The Calendar of Tiahuanaco (1959); and The Great Idol of Tiahuanaco; both published by Faber and Faber, London.

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