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The Book of Enoch, Babylon, and Reopening the Gates of the Gods (PART 2 OF “OPENING ENOCH’S DOORS”)

OPENING ENOCH’S DOORS – PART 2

PART 1

By Thomas Horn


Located on the bank of Euphrates River, Babylon was the most famous eastern city of antiquity, and also was the consummate representation of wickedness in sacred Scripture. As Israel’s tormentor, abductor, devastator, and eventual home in exile, Babylon was used by God in Scripture to bring judgment on other nations (e.g., Jeremiah 21:2–10 and 25:8–11).[i] The name “Mystery Babylon” ascribed to the great harlot of the Apocalypse embodies the seductiveness of worldly spirituality enslaved to affluence and pleasure (Revelation 18:11–19). She defiantly “rides the beast” or gains authority from her association with the Antichrist—the Man of Sin (2 Thessalonians 2:3). The saccharine wine sloshing from her golden cup of abominations “made all the earth drunken: The nations have drunken of her wine; Therefore the nations are mad” (Jeremiah 51:7). While Babylon as an apocalyptic symbol transcends a geopolitical location, we suggest that “preternatural Babylon” will still assault Israel from the deserts of Iraq as an initial part of God’s judgment during the Day of the Lord.

But how did the preternatural aspects of this strategic location begin?

Fourteen to twenty centuries before the Persians, Greeks, and Romans rewrote the earliest myths into their own creation accounts, the ancient land of Sumer (known as Shinar and later Babylon) produced original accounts by scribes who detailed how certain “gods” descended from Heaven—sometimes in “flying” machines and sometimes through magical doorways associated with specific mountains. These stories were pressed onto Sumerian cuneiform clay tablets using pictographs and other symbols to produce the first known system of writing and recordkeeping. The fantastic encounters told of how visits by the “gods” led to advanced scientific and arcane knowledge, which later was codified in the Babylonian Mysteries and worship of Ishtar, Tammuz, Ashtaroth, and various Baals. Most scholars today recognize numerous parallels between Sumerian accounts of creation and the arrival of the “gods” with the biblical stories of Creation and the fall of Lucifer and later incursion of the Watchers. For example, the struggle between Lucifer against God is turned topsy-turvy in one famous Sumerian epic in which a struggle unfolds between the “ruler of the heavens” versus the “power of the air.” This occurs in early Sumerian mythology after Enki, the god of wisdom and water, created the human race out of clay. It then appears that Anu, who was at first the most powerful of the Sumerian gods and the “ruler of the heavens,” is superseded in power and popularity by Enlil, the “god of the air.” To the Christian mind, this can easily be perceived as nothing less than Satan, the god of the air, continuing his pretense to the throne of God and his usurpation of Yahweh—“the Lord of the heavens.” It also indicates an effort on the part of Satan and his angels to trick pagan Sumerians into perceiving them as the “supreme” gods (above the God of Heaven) and worthy of adoration.

Another example of this pattern is found in the legend called “Enuma-elish,” in which Marduk, the great god of the city of Babylon, is exalted above the benevolent gods and extolled as the creator of the world. The symbol of Marduk is a dragon (as is Satan in Revelation 12:9) called the Muscrussu, whose fable appears to contain several distortions of the important elements of the biblical account of Creation.

Genesis chapter 6, as well as numerous biblical apocrypha, affirms this story of beings that descended from Heaven to represent themselves as gods. Such ancient testaments include Enoch, Jubilees, Baruch, Genesis Apocryphon, Philo, Josephus, and various other olden records (RECEIVE ALL THESE BOOKS AND MORE FREE IN OFFER—SEE SHORT VIDEO BELOW). The Hebrews themselves referred to these so-called gods as fallen Benei ha-Elohim (sons of God) who most notoriously mingled with humans, giving birth to part-celestial, part-terrestrial hybrids called Nephilim.

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The other thing that stands out in the Sumerian texts as well as in later Greek and Roman mythologies (the Arcadian myths) is the desperate quest by post-Flood civilizations to regain the knowledge of these “gods” after it was lost in the epic of the deluge. According to the earliest writings, this included angelic technology bordering on “magic.” The Book of Enoch (read by all the early church theologians, including Justin Martyr, Clemens of Alexandria, Origin, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Eusebius, Jerome, and Augustine, to name just a few, as well as quoted by the disciples and still included in some versions of the Bible today) tells of one of these flying “gods” (a fallen Watcher named Semjaza) who taught “enchantments.” Another called Baraqijal taught the power of astrology; Azael taught weaponry; Araqiel, Shamsiel, and Sariel instructed on observations of the earth, sun, and the moon; and so on. From these secrets, men learned to advance war while women learned to use “charms and enchantments” to allure the giants themselves into their beds in order to propagate even more genetic atrocities. And this—the role of genetic manipulation—was central to what these “gods” were up to and ultimately why God destroyed all but Noah’s family in the Flood. Indeed, the Bible describes the cause of the Flood as happening in response to “all flesh” having become “corrupted, both man and beast.”

But did the secrets of the Watchers also include something even more fanciful? Something the post-Flood survivors desperately desired to reclaim? Angelic secrets of transdimensional locations and navigation, which existed before most life on earth was destroyed by water? Is that what was being constructed by Nimrod on the plains of Shinar? Could it be that by the time God responded to the tower’s building, it had been concluded to such a phase that post-Flood giants were coming through the gateway (which Isaiah says they wait behind in that same location [more on that later]) to be reintroduced into our world? Is that how giants were on the earth before and after the Flood, and why God descended to disperse the building of the “tower” shortly thereafter?

After the flood waters abated, the sons of Noah would have moved to quickly reestablish society. While the children of Shem populated the Middle and Far East, and Jepheth developed the Eurasian and Greco-Roman geography, the land of Shinar would become the settlement efforts of Ham and his son Canaan (Genesis 11:1–2). This is where Nimrod, described in the oldest literature as a giant, would ultimately rise to become a “mighty” hunter before God and the first ruler of Babylon. This is recorded in the Bible this way:

And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth.

He was a mighty hunter before the Lord: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the Lord.

And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. (Genesis 10:8–10)

The name “Babylon” is derived from the Greek form of the name based on the Akkadian plural form Bāb-ilāni “gate of gods.”[ii] In sharp contrast to its inherently divine claim, the ancient Hebrews used it in a polemic fashion: “Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the Lord did there confound [balal] the language of all the earth” (Genesis 11:9). In a sarcastic way, this verse links the name of the city, Babel, with the Hebrew verb balal, which means “to confuse, to mix, to mingle.”[iii] Missed in English translation, God is inspiring Moses to taunt, “You claim to be the ‘gate of the gods,’ but you are really only the gate to confusion.” The intentional wordplay is a scriptural “face palm” directed toward Babylon.

The ziggurat at Babylon was known formally as Etemenanki, “The House of the Foundation-Platform of Heaven and Earth.”[iv] The word “ziggurat” is derived from the Akkadian ziqqurratu, “temple tower,” a noun derived from zaqāru, “to build high.”[v] The Babylonians and their predecessors, the Sumerians, believed in many heavens and earths. For example, Sumerian incantations of the second millennium BC refer to seven heavens and seven earths possibly created by seven generations of gods.[vi] Given seven heavens is a part of religious cosmology found in Judaism and Islam, the Sumerian tradition is surprisingly obscure. In the Sumerian myth, “Inanna’s descent to the underworld,” the “Queen of Heaven” Inanna passes through a total of seven gates, each one exacting a price in divine powers. The sevenfold structure is displayed when the gatekeeper was instructed to “let the seven gates of the underworld be bolted.”[vii]

Like most people in the ancient world and even today, the Sumerians considered mountains to be the link between the heavens and earth. In Tablet 9 of the standard version of the Epic of Gilgamesh, Mashu is a great cedar-forested mountain. Apparently, this sacred mountain spans from the heavens to the underworld. Tablet 9 of the epic reads, “Then he reached Mount Mashu, which daily guards the rising and setting of the Sun, above which only the dome of the heavens reaches, and whose flank reaches as far as the Netherworld below, there were Scorpion beings watching over its gate.”[viii] Because the word “Mashu” comes from the Akkadian for “twins,” it may translate as “two mountains.”[ix] We suggest the approximate location between two mountains suitable for being called a “cedar land” was the forest between Mount Lebanon and Mount Hermon (whose name means “Forbidden Place”)—the portal of the Watchers’ initial descent and netherworld imprisonment, according to the ancient Book of Enoch.

Like a man-made mountain, the ziggurat was a portal—a gateway between Heaven and earth. For example, the city-gate of Ninurta was called “lofty-city-gate-of-heaven-and earth,”[x] the ziggurat at Larsa, “The House of the Link between Heaven and Earth,” and Borsippa, “The House of the Seven Guides of Heaven and Earth” and Asshur, The “House of the Mountain of the Universe.”[xi] These were all megalithic structures that shared the ill-conceived desire to build a “stairway to heaven” like the prototype mentioned in Genesis 11:4.

The biblical account of Babel attributes the city’s foundation to Nimrod (Genesis 10:10). The builders wanted to create a structure “whose top may reach unto heaven.” When the Lord came down and saw what was happening, He said, “Nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do” (Genesis 11:6). That is a curious comment if the meaning here is only that the tower would reach into the “sky.” Structures had been built around the world since the dawn of time extending significantly skyward. Today, the world’s tallest man-made structure is the 2,722-foot-tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Even so, God seems unimpressed, and that is why imagining Babel’s altitude as a significant challenge begs credulity. The Babel ambition seems necessarily much more than sheer stature and hints at apotheosis.

As far as we know, nothing else has ever elicited such an intriguing response from God, saying, “nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do” or a translation like “nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them” (ESV). And what was it Nimrod imagined to do? To build a tower whose top would penetrate Shamayim—the abode of Watchers; God. And just what sort of nefarious construction project would allow that to happen and arguably prompt more divine intervention than the atomic bomb? Josephus weakly suggests that the Tower of Babel was being made waterproof and that this was an act of rebellion against God, defying Him for sending the Flood and preparing for survival of future acts of punishment should they come. Yet what if another meaning here—“which they have imagined to do”—fits more perfectly with Scripture and history? Something that has to do with the physicality of Heaven—as in the dwelling place of angels?

My good friend Gary Stearman—popular anchor of Prophecy Watchers television programs—believes like many scholars do that something was going on at Babylon with regard to “angelic portal technology.” He writes:

Under the leadership of Nimrod, the early post-Flood societies were obviously attempting to reunite with the fallen spirit-beings, who were within their recent historical memory…they were on the verge of achieving their primary goal—not just to build a tower, but to break through a barrier to the realm of heaven, itself. They were apparently about to realize some success in penetrating the dimensional veil that separates one aspect of heaven from the earth!

This “tower” would enable men to realize their darkest imaginings. And what had they imagined to do? Simply to renew their contact with the “sons of God,” as their predecessors had done before the Flood.[xii]

Perhaps, as Stearman suggests above, Nimrod was attempting to open a doorway with the peripheral proximity of a parallel brane in the cosmic superstructure astrophysicists call the bulk (explained in our book On the Path of the Immortals, chapter 8, “The Science of Portals,”). According to modern physics, the Second Heaven (or astral plane) might be only a micrometer away in a fifth dimension. On the one hand, such ideas bring comfort to some, to conceptualize God and His angels as always in such close “physical” proximity. On the other hand, the same notion disturbingly adds relevance to the prophecies of Isaiah regarding earthly Babel-gates opening at the end of time with giants and transgenic monstrosities rushing out of them. Either way, the text above could imply the ever-present apotheosis ambition of man—to use the tower as a transformational technology employed by Nimrod and his minions to become like gods and “make us a name.” In Forbidden Secrets of the Labyrinth, Mark Flynn explains, “The tower was not necessarily a device that would cause men to become gods immediately, but an intradimensional conduit that would once more bring the assistance of the Watchers who would make men “gods” like themselves through the knowledge they provided.”[xiii] The Watchers’ primary offense (other than illicit procreation with humans) was the promulgation of forbidden knowledge, weapons, and dangerous technology (1 Enoch 8).

As a result, we would expect a tell-tale level of sophistication in ancient cultures under their sway. Indeed, megalithic structures of the time and OOPARTS (objects that existed in places and time that defy logic). For instance, the disputable “Baghdad Battery” is an actual working battery reportedly from the ancient plains of Shinar. Nobody knows what real voltage-producing batteries could have been used for at that time or how the knowledge to make them was developed seem to indicate very advanced and sophisticated knowledge, which was abruptly lost in antiquity. Joseph Farrell asserts the same and documents how the ancient Babylonians were much more erudite than historians initially believed. He writes, “The Pythagorean theorem was known in Babylon more than a thousand years before Pythagoras.… Traditional stories of discoveries made by Thales or Pythagoras must be discarded as ‘totally unhistorical’; much of what we have thought was Pythagorean must now be credited to Babylon.”[xiv] The sexagesimal number system used in ancient Mesopotamia used cuneiform wedge-shaped digits to represent powers of sixty. Farrell believes it could imply a familiarity with extradimensionality:

The very structure of ancient Mesopotamian numerical notation implies a basic familiarity with hyper-dimensional geometries and the basic mathematical techniques for describing objects in four or more spatial dimensions.… It is to be noted that the Sumerian-Babylonian gods may be described by such notation. In other words, the gods were being described as a peculiar union of physics and religion, as hyper-dimensional entities or objects.[xv]

According to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, and all Western efforts in the exact sciences are direct descendants of the late Babylonian astronomers.[xvi] These advances suggest the Watchers’ influence. If so, then perhaps the notorious tower involved a fantastic angelic technology that would allow Nimrod to actually do the impossible—as the text cryptically implies. More conservatively, it suggests that the “gateway” association was not merely a metaphor. It seems most probable that it opened a channel to the Second Heaven and the abode of the Watchers.

Revealing the Immortals

In response to Nimrod’s ambitious structure, Yahweh confused the languages and the peoples dispersed. For that reason, Genesis chapters 10 and 11 constitute what is known as “The Table of Nations.” The corresponding nations are the direct result of the Tower of Babel dispersal. According to Jewish tradition, there were seventy original nations after the Flood, corresponding to the seventy names in this chapter. Referring to this era, a strange passage in Deuteronomy reads:

When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of men, he fixed the bounds of the peoples according to the number of the sons of God [Bene Elohim, LXX: “angels”]. For the Lord’s portion is his people, Jacob his allotted heritage. (Deuteronomy 32:8–9)

Hebrew Bible scholar Dr. Michael Heiser uses this as the basis for the “Deuteronomy 32 Worldview,” a theological construct based on the oldest manuscript’s reading of verse 8. Where we read in the King James Bible, “according to the number of the children of Israel,” in the Dead Sea Scrolls as well as the Greek Septuagint’s more ancient text, this verse reads, “according to the number of the sons of God,” which is a clear reference to angels (Deuteronomy 32:8, ESV [the ESV translation used the LXX reading]). The passage (Deuteronomy 32:8) reflects the Jewish belief that the number of the nations is proportional to the number of the “sons of God” mentioned in Genesis 6:2 and Job 2:1, among other passages. This is a more logical reading than “sons of Israel” found in many English Bibles, because when mankind was divided at Babel, Abraham had not yet been born, so there were no “sons of Israel.”

The “immortals” are the “sons of God.” A Jewish angelology adopts this exegesis as well, stating:

Another special group of angels are the 70 “princes of the peoples,” appointed over each of the 70 peoples of the earth. They are first mentioned in the Septuagint in Deuteronomy 32:8—without their number being given—from which it may be gathered that at this time the number of all angels was thought not to exceed the number of peoples.[xvii]

In ancient Judaism, it was understood that the dispersal at the Tower of Babel entailed not only the confusion of the languages, but Yahweh’s disinheriting of the other nations. God delegated the nations to angelic rule as reflected in the pseudepigraphal book Testament of Nephatali:

And do not forget the Lord your God, the God of your fathers; Who was chosen by our father Abraham when the nations were divided in the time of Phaleg. For at that time the Lord, blessed be He, came down from His highest heavens, and brought down with Him seventy ministering angels, Michael at their head. He commanded them to teach the seventy families which sprang from the loins of Noah seventy languages. Forthwith the angels descended and did according to the command of their Creator. But the holy language, the Hebrew language, remained only in the house of Shem and Eber, and in the house of Abraham our father, who is one of their descendants. (Testament of Nephatali 8:3–6)[xviii]

Of the seventy nations in the Genesis 10 table, certain “sons of God” or “powers and principalities” are associated with specific geographic areas and people groups. During the time of Peleg (cf. Genesis 10:25), God descended from Heaven with the seventy angels in order to teach the peoples of the earth their respective languages. Later, Michael, at the behest of God, asked each people to choose its patron angel, and each nation chose the angel who had taught it its language, with the exception of Israel. In order to display distinction, Deuteronomy 32:9 indicates that Yahweh chose Israel as His own. This pantheon of divine beings or angels who were originally to administer the affairs of Heaven and earth for the benefit of each people group became corrupt and disloyal to God in their administration of those nations (Psalm 82). They then began soliciting worship as gods, and because these angels, unlike their human admirers, would continue on earth until the end of time, each “spirit” behind the pagan attributions would become known at miscellaneous times in history and to various cultures by different names. This certainly agrees with the biblical definition of idolatry as the worship of fallen angels, and means the characterization of such spirits as Nimrod/Apollo, Jupiter, Zeus, Isis, and their many other attributions can be correctly understood simply as titles ascribed to distinct and individual supernaturalism.

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Jewish lore holds that when the First Temple was destroyed, God turned away and the seventy angels were allowed to hold sway over Israel until the Day of Judgment (Enoch 89:59; 90:22, 25). As pointed out in the bestselling Reversing Hermon (FREE WITH OTHER GIFTS IN OFFER HERE), the seventy nations, with their associate “son of God,” is the background behind Jesus’ sending of the seventy (Luke 10:1) and adds new relevance to their response: “And the seventy returned again with joy, saying, Lord, even the [seventy fallen angels?] devils are subject unto us through thy name” (Luke 10:17).

The numbers seventy or seventy-two feature prominently in Jewish mysticism and Western occultism. Ars Goetia is the first section of a demonological grimoire called The Lesser Key of Solomon, which describes how to summon and control the seventy-two demons that King Solomon allegedly evoked, employed, and confined when he built the original temple on Mount Zion.[xix] After describing the attributes of each of the seventy-two evil spirits, the Goetia provides an account of what happened when King Solomon imprisoned them into a brass vessel:

And it is to be noted that Solomon did this because of their pride [i.e., the pride of the evil spirits], for he never declared other reason why he thus bound them. And when he had thus bound them up and sealed the Vessel, he by Divine Power did chase them all into a deep Lake or Hole in Babylon.[xx]

While the Bible does report that Solomon succumbed to idolatry (1 Kings 11:4), there is no historical basis for such fantastic claims about the construction of the Temple and we do not accept the Goetia’s demonic revisionism. Like most occultism, its demonic magic is based on pseudo history and outright fabrication. It never really empowers the practitioner and inevitably leads one to destruction.

In Psalm 82, Yahweh condemns and promises to punish the gods (the seventy fallen angels) who have abused and misled their people:

I have said, Ye are gods; And all of you are children of the most High.

But ye shall die like men, And fall like one of the princes.

Arise, O God, judge the earth: For thou shalt inherit all nations. (Psalm 82:6–8)

While anything short of a supernatural interpretation requires externally imposed revision, my friend Mike Heiser was probably the first to point out the most obvious problem with the suggestion that these are Israelites; that is, why does Yahweh condemn them to “die like men” if they actually are men? It only makes sense if you take the text literally when it identifies them as created gods but still called gods nonetheless. The territorial nature of these powers is further supported by Scripture.

Regaining Access to the Warring Angels?

In the book of Daniel, the angel Gabriel reports to Daniel that he was delayed twenty-one days due to a battle with the “prince of the kingdom of Persia,” and was only able to escape when Israel’s champion, the archangel Michael, came to assist (Daniel 10:13–14). Even more, he reports that once he is done battling the Persian spirit, he must then fight the “prince of Greece.” In suggesting this is a peek behind the curtain of an extradimensional battle, what immediately comes to mind is that at the time of Daniel’s writing, the Persian Empire was in control of most of the world, but it was soon to be conquered by Alexander the Great of Greece. These otherworldly princes appear to be the original seventy divine council members.

After Daniel, the most significant book of end-time prophecy is Zechariah. In the last section of the Zechariah (chapters 12–14), one can parallel the text to fill in details concerning the battle of Armageddon and Jesus’ return to the Mount of Olives. He is also shown an angelic paramilitary squad—“These are they whom the Lord hath sent to walk to and fro, through the earth”—which patrols the earth restraining evil and promoting justice (Zechariah 1:10b). Cambridge scholar Iain Duguid writes, “These horsemen are his ‘special operations;’ forces, not human beings (who could not quickly inspect the whole earth) but angels engaged in secret observation of the world to provide up-to-date and accurate intelligence information for the Lord.”[xxi] Like the divine council, God has chosen to use intermediaries to accomplish His will on earth. What is lesser known, however, is how through Zechariah, God promised Joshua the high priest access to the heavenly council!

Thus saith the Lord of hosts; If thou wilt walk in my ways, and if thou wilt keep my charge, Then thou shalt also judge my house, and shalt also keep my courts, And I will give thee places to walk among these that stand by. (Zechariah 3:7, emphasis added)

In context, the persons indicated by the phrase “these that stand by” were the divine council “sons of God,” including the angel of the Lord and Satan (3:1). God then promises to bring His servant, the Branch, and to remove the iniquity of the land in one day (a claim singularly explained by Jesus’ substitutionary atonement via the cross).

Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, thou, And thy fellows that sit before thee: For they are men wondered at: For, behold, I will bring forth my servant the Branch.

For behold the stone that I have laid before Joshua; Upon one stone shall be seven eyes: Behold, I will engrave the graving thereof, saith the Lord of hosts, And I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day. (Zechariah 3:8–9)

Interpreting Jesus as “the Branch” is strongly supported by the following: “And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, And a Branch shall grow out of his roots” (Isaiah 11:1).Throughout Isaiah, the Messiah is consistently symbolized as a branch, shoot or twig (4:2; 6:13; 53:2). The Septuagint contains another fascinating reading concerning Jesus that does not appear in the Masoretic text. The Masoretic reads:

For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: And the government shall be upon his shoulder: And his name shall be called Wonderful, Counseller, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. (Isaiah 9:6)

And the LXX reads:

Because a child was born to us; a son was given to us whose leadership came upon his shoulder; and his name is called “Messenger of the Great Council,” for I will bring peace upon the rulers and health to him. (Isaiah 9:6, LES, emphasis added)

Of course, this identifies Jesus as the “Messenger of the Great Council” and reinforces the Deuteronomy 32 worldview. The Septuagint reading is much older and more likely reflects Isaiah’s intended meaning for his seventh-century BC reader. It also implies that all who are in Christ have direct access to the CEO and are no longer subject to the council and its territorial princes. Jesus is the High Priest of a new and better covenant that includes all of the nations (Hebrews 8:13).

In Luke 10, Jesus prefigures the Gentile mission by sending seventy disciples to represent the seventy nations of Jewish tradition (some Greek manuscripts read seventy; others read seventy-two). Similarly, Paul writes of “elemental spirits of the world” (Colossians 2:8) and “principalities, cosmic powers, and rulers of the darkness of this world” (Ephesians 6:12). The prophet Isaiah foretells the future judgment of these so-called gods: “On that day the Lord will punish the host of heaven, in heaven, and the kings of the earth, on the earth” (Isaiah 24:21). Paul was saying as much when he wrote of the cross: “And having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them in it” (Colossians 2:15). Through Jesus, all believers “have access by one Spirit unto the Father” (Ephesians 2:18b). Even though these foes are defeated, they still hold sway on the unbelieving world system. Almost certainly, the war in Heaven described in Revelation 12 represents the end game and impending final judgment of the rebel angelic powers.

Even if it seems radically new to the reader, the Deuteronomy 32 worldview is ancient Hebraic theology in its purest form. Despite knee-jerk reactions, it is not really polytheism. The little ‘g’ gods are created, not eternal. Yahweh is clearly above them all, so monotheism is not challenged. Theological considerations aside, this construct also suggests more interesting explanations for megalithic monuments and the world grid system that will be discussed elsewhere in this series.

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[i] Leland Ryken, et al., Dictionary of Biblical Imagery (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000) 68.

[ii]A. C. Myers (1987), The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. rev., augm. translation of: Bijbelseencyclopedie, rev. ed. 1975 (117) (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans).

[iii]“1101a, balal,”  Robert L. Thomas, New American Standard Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek Dictionaries: Updated Edition (Anaheim: Foundation, 1998).

[iv]http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/BabyloniaThe_Ziggurat.htm.

[v] Paul J. Achtemeier, Harper’s Bible Dictionary (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985) 1164.

[vi]Norriss S. Hetherington, ed., Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, vol.1634, “Cosmology: Historical, Literary, Philosophical, Religious, and Scientific Perspectives” (New York: Garland, 1993) 44.

[vii]Verse 117, “Inana’s Descent to the Nether World,” The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature, http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/section1/tr141.htm (accessed December 30, 2014).

[viii]The Epic of Gilgamesh, translated by Maureen Gallery Kovacs, electronic Ed., by Wolf Carnahan, 1998, http://www.sjsu.edu/people/cynthia.rostankowski/courses/119a/s4/The%20Epic%20of%20Gilgamesh.pdf (accessed December 30, 2014).

[ix]Rivkah Schärf Kluger and Yehezkel Kluger, The Archetypal Significance of Gilgamesh: A Modern Ancient Hero, ed. Yehezkel Kluger (Einsiedeln, Switzerland: Daimon, 1991) 163.

[x] The Manumission of Umanigar (3.134A) [Reading [K]Á.GAL-mah-ki-a[n-na] / dNin-urta-k[a]. Cf. Steinkeller 1989:73 n. 209.] In William W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger, Context of Scripture (Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2003) 301.

[xi]Zondervan NIV Study Bible: Loose-Leaf Edition (Grand Rapids, MI: Hendrickson, 2005) 22.

[xii]Gary Stearman, Prophecy in the News Magazine (October 2013) 11.

[xiii]http://www.raidersnewsupdate.com/labyrinth8.htm.

[xiv]Samuel Noah Kramer, The Sumerians, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963) 291, as cited in Joseph P. Farrell, The Grid of the Gods (2013) Kindle Locations 5012–5016.

[xv]Joseph P. Farrell (11-21-2013), The Grid of the Gods (SCB Distributors, Kindle edition)  5125–5131.

[xvi]Asger Aaboe, “The Culture of Babylonia: Babylonian Mathematics, Astrology, and Astronomy,” The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries B.C.E,  Eds. John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, N. G. L. Hammond, E. Sollberger and C. B. F. Walker (Cambridge University Press, 1991).

[xvii]“Jewish Concepts: Angels & Angelology,” Jewish Virtual Library, http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/angels.html.

[xviii]Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, R. H. Charles, ed. (2:363) (Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, 2004).

[xix]Lemegeton Clavicula Salomonis: The Lesser Key of Solomon, Detailing the Ceremonial Art of Commanding Spirits Both Good and Evil; ed. Joseph H. Peterson (Maine: Weiser Books, 2001).

[xx]S. L. M. Mathers, ed., Goetia: The Lesser Key of Solomon. The Book of Evil Spirits, with an introduction by Aleister Crowley [1904] (Chicago: De Laurence, Scott & Co., 1916) 45 (reissued by Weiser, Boston, 1995).

[xxi]Iain M. Duguid, Zechariah 1:10–11 note in The ESV Study Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Bibles, 2008) 1753–1754.

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